Saturday, August 31, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Birthday PartyÃ¢â¬ Love can fade away or be lost by even the strongest of couples in the view of society. The Ã¢â¬Å"Birthday Party,Ã¢â¬ by Katharine Brush relates the relationship of two Ã¢â¬Å"unmistakably marriedÃ¢â¬ couple, out for a small celebration, which goes wrong as an example of love that can not always be sustained by age. As couples get older it is harder to sustain love in front of society, and Brush shows the idea by incorporating symbolism, tone, and point of view to the story.Brush uses the tone to build up the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions toward the married couple and also identify why the situation occurred. In the begging she mentions that they looked Ã¢â¬Å"unmistakably marriedÃ¢â¬ which emphasizes the bond of love that appears on the outside. The physical aspect of their relationship is good to show because it lets society know that there is a strong bond, making it easier for the audience to react in the shocked way that they did when the incid ent occurred. The contradicting choice of words of Brush when describing the incident also gives the confusion that something is not right.By using fadingly pretty, beamed with shy pride, unmistakably married, hotly embarrassed and not pleased you can see a foreshadowing of what may happen according to the mixed signals. In a way, it has the reader thinking back and fort whether this is love after a long period of time. What seems to be an ordinary day out, turns into a small celebration in which we can compare the minor events as symbolism to their love. The cake that was brought out showed the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s affection for her husband, therefore simply signified her love to him.When the cake was rejected by the husband, it meant that the husband had little interest in her love. This reveals that the strong physical relationship that the audience saw in the beginning is false now that they see the husband hotly mad. It shows that their love is slowly decaying in front of society. The fact that they are out in public illustrates the judgment of all to what love truly is, difficult to manage as time goes on. People will always be judgmental of couples and their relationship which is why Brush describes the wife as wearing a Ã¢â¬Å"big hat. The big hat that she wears, after she has been humiliated by her husband, represents what most girls do during emotional tolls. They use them to cover up their emotions so that they are not pitted on by others. This attempt to hide does not work very well because Brush describes the scene where the narrator shows a sign of pity for the lonely sobbing woman. In this short story love has shifted the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship in a serious way which gives the audience an opinion of how they should react according to their point of view.There are many biased forms to interpret who is to blame for a fallen relationship. The way that Brush describes the story and from what point of view she portrayed the situation it seems as thoug h there is a feminist background on who is to blame for this relationship. Describing the woman more dramatically, Ã¢â¬Å"fadingly prettyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"in a big hat,Ã¢â¬ than the man, it implies that she finds the woman to be more presentable to society; therefore carrying more about how people see her. There is evidence of acting dramatically.When she cried inside the restaurant, it can most likely show that from the point of view of the audience she was the helpless one with a broken heart and the man was very rude. Throughout life the bond of love is seen in society in different ways than they are seen in the inside. Society can change the view of love as Brush shows that love is canÃ¢â¬â¢t be predicted and that hopeless love is possible. If there is no hope for love as an older couple that it shows us what couples of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation will go through. The Birthday Party Have you ever been so afraid that you have felt that even your hair trembled? When a delightful day starts and you are full of life but suddenly you think you are not going to tell your friends and family how much you love them, and how much you miss them before you die. At 7 o'clock in the evening I went to the cinema with some friends to celebrate my birthday. I knew that something was going wrong. I knew that, that night wasn't an ordinary night. I knew I had to go home on foot and not by car. Everything and everyone was different. My friends arrived and we decided to watch a horror movie, Ã¢â¬Å"GothikaÃ¢â¬ . We entered the screen but something strange happened. There weren't any other people! In the middle of the movie somebody was calling me. I did not know the number, so I did not answered but whoever it was, he kept calling. I answered. A creepy voice whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"It will rain tonight.Ã¢â¬ I told my friends about it, and they laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"Leoni don't be crazy! It's just a joke! This morning the sun was shining it will not rain! Ã¢â¬Å"Come on do not be afraid. Calm down Leoni!Ã¢â¬ Peter soothed. Ã¢â¬Å"The movie we have chosen is a bit scary and she is afraid. Calm down Leoni!Ã¢â¬ Epaminondas whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"She is just not in a good mood.Ã¢â¬ Maria said. Ã¢â¬Å"I am telling you there was something scary with those words, something strange.Ã¢â¬ I whispered. At about 11:25 everybody left and I started walking back home. There was a full moon. A terrifying wind made the trees rustle. The wind whistled through the leaves like a wining sound. I was so frightened. I felt like someone was coming after me. I saw a narrow road and I decided to go home from there. Suddenly, it started raining. I panicked. A howling voice whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"I told you, it will rain.Ã¢â¬ Blood boomed in my ears. I wanted to run away or close my eyes and be at home but it could not happen. While I was thinking about any ideas dealing with my scariness I saw an old lady. She was a short, fat lady and with grey hair. Was she behind this bad joke? She seemed like an ordinary woman with droopy eyes and short hair. I started walking towards her when a black figure appeared. Who was he? Was he someone she knew? Was he the one that phoned me? What was this night about? The man had long, black hair and almond eyes. He was carrying something. A knife! I wanted to warn her but I couldn't move. I was stuck and I couldn't move my legs. I called Maria she was sleeping. Jane was sleeping too. What shall I do? Who shall I phone to come and help me? What if it was all my imagination? I phoned Chris, I didn't say much. I just told him to come to the narrow road, near the cinema. The woman was still there. She seemed to be looking for something. The man was still behind her. I told Chris to pull me just to try and move my legs. I could walk! I could run! But I couldn't run for long until I stopped in front of the old lady. While trembling I asked, Ã¢â¬Å"What are you looking for?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My umbrella, child, didn't anyone tell you it would rain tonight? You are all wet. Come, take my jacket!Ã¢â¬ she said. I looked behind me and I saw the man walking away. The figure became one with the dark night. When I turned around I saw him. My heart was beating so fast and I could hardly breathe. It missed a beat! He opened his mouth to say something and I noticed that he was missing a tooth. He was very scary. He whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"Didn't I tell you it would rain? You thought I was joking. You did not believe me! I will make you believe me!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Chris! Chris! Where are you?Ã¢â¬ I shouted. I opened my eyes. Chris and my friends were next to me. They were all smiling but you knew they were upset. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ Was the film so boring that you slept while we were watching it?Ã¢â¬ Chris asked. Ã¢â¬Å"It was a nightmare! Thank God!Ã¢â¬ I called. Ã¢â¬Å"You have a missed call from an unknown number.Ã¢â¬ Epaminondas said. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh no!Ã¢â¬ I shouted. Ã¢â¬Å"What's wrong?Ã¢â¬ Maria asked. Ã¢â¬Å"I saw a nightmare. Don't tell me to explain it because I cannot. Please can somebody do me a favour?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever you want! We will always be there for you!Ã¢â¬ Joanna shouted. Ã¢â¬Å"Can you phone this number back?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure.Ã¢â¬ Joanna said. She phoned. She waited. She phoned another time. Nobody answered. She phoned from her mobile. Again. No answer. Ã¢â¬Å"Leoni are you sure this is the right number?Ã¢â¬ She asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. This was the number that phoned me.Ã¢â¬ I whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"ButÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She mumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"But what? What is wrong? Tell me!Ã¢â¬ I cried. Ã¢â¬Å"This number is not in use.Ã¢â¬ She whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"It is! Look it is calling me again.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ I complained. Ã¢â¬Å"Answer it.Ã¢â¬ Maria suggested. Ã¢â¬Å"I t will rain tonight!Ã¢â¬ A creepy voice whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh no! This cannot be happening! Can you take me home? Please?Ã¢â¬ I asked desperately. Ã¢â¬Å"Hello? Can you hear me? Maria? Joanna? Chris? Epaminondas?Ã¢â¬ I shouted. But nobody could hear me. It seemed that I was trapped somewhere and nobody could hear me or even see me. YesÃ¢â¬ ¦I was dreaming!!!!!!!! I opened my eyes and suddenly the lights went on, a chorus of happy voices yelled happily happy birthday to me!
Friday, August 30, 2019
Hasty generalization (Anecdotal) Definition: Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate (usually because it is atypical or just too small). Stereotypes about people (Ã¢â¬Å"librarians are shy and smart,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"wealthy people are snobs,Ã¢â¬ etc. ) are a common example of the principle underlying hasty generalization. Example: Ã¢â¬Å"My roommate said her philosophy class was hard, and the one I'm in is hard, too. All philosophy classes must be hard! Ã¢â¬ Two people's experiences are, in this case, not enough on which to base a conclusion. The person committing the fallacy is misusing the following type of reasoning, which is known variously as Inductive Generalization, Generalization, and Statistical Generalization: 1. X% of all observed A's are BÃ¢â¬ s. 2. Therefore X% of all A's are Bs. The fallacy is committed when not enough A's are observed to warrant the conclusion. If enough A's are observed then the reasoning is not fallacious. Tip: Ask yourself what kind of Ã¢â¬Å"sampleÃ¢â¬ you're using: Are you relying on the opinions or experiences of just a few people, or your own experience in just a few situations? If so, consider whether you need more evidence, or perhaps a less sweeping conclusion. (Notice that in the example, the more modest conclusion Ã¢â¬Å"Some philosophy classes are hard for some studentsÃ¢â¬ would not be a hasty generalization. ) Here are some more examples of hasty generalisations fallacies. See if you can identify the fallacy and write this in the following format Ã¢â¬Å"A means B. Ã¢â¬ We will then discuss what is wrong with each one: 1. Bill: Ã¢â¬Å"You know, those feminists all hate men. Ã¢â¬ Joe: Ã¢â¬Å"Really? Ã¢â¬ Bill: Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. I was in my philosophy class the other day and that Rachel chick gave a presentation. Ã¢â¬ Joe: Ã¢â¬Å"Which Rachel? Ã¢â¬ Bill: Ã¢â¬Å"You know her. She's the one that runs that feminist group over at the Women's Center. She said that men are all sexist pigs. I asked her why she believed this and she said that her last few boyfriends were real sexist pigs. Ã¢â¬ Joe: Ã¢â¬Å"That doesn't sound like a good reason to believe that all of us are pigs. Ã¢â¬ Bill: Ã¢â¬Å"That was what I said. Ã¢â¬ Joe: Ã¢â¬Å"What did she say? Ã¢â¬ Bill: Ã¢â¬Å"She said that she had seen enough of men to know we are all pigs. She obviously hates all men. Ã¢â¬ Joe: Ã¢â¬Å"So you think all feminists are like her? Ã¢â¬ Bill: Ã¢â¬Å"Sure. They all hate men. Ã¢â¬ 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Our English teacher made us ready read some poetry last year, and it was really boring. I know now that I will never like poetryÃ¢â¬ 3. Fred the Australian, stole my wallet. Thus, all Australians are thieves. 4. I asked six of my friends what they thought of the new taxes and they agreed that they are a good idea. The new taxes are therefore generally popular. 5. All swans are white. 6. Critical thinking is not part of my university application therefore Critical Thinking has no value After the discussion write 2 or 3 examples of ad hominem/tu qouqueÃ¢â¬â¢s of your own. India is the country with the largest population therefore Indian people love to have sex Han Eol is good at badminton therefore all Koreans are good at badminton The Virginia Tech Massacre was done by a Korean, therefore all Koreans are terrorists James Koay gets good grades therefore all Asians are smart Blondes are dumb therefore Carrie Sharp is dumb
Thursday, August 29, 2019
1. Executive Summary Bidvest is a South Africa-based distribution services and trading business and the largest foodservice business outside North America. The group is active in freight management, outsourced services, industrial and commercial products and services, printing, packaging closures, stationery, office products, corporate travel and automotive retailing. Bidvest is listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, with over 105,000 employees on four continents. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bidvest_Group .The group is also highly debt-averse Ã¢â¬â a position it is able to maintain through its ability to generate cash. This assignment firstly provides an introduction into who is Bidvest and provides a broad and critical evaluation of Bidvest strategy. The group used approach that evaluated Bidvest started with highlighting the key success factors of Bidvest. Secondly we used the two competitiveness models, firstly the generic business strategies which are also supported by Porter for possible use in adoption to gain competitive advantage model and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s diamond model. From investor perspective Bidvest shares are very appealing for their stability and or growth and for anyone who is in the market for a job, they will not go wrong with Bidvest. Lastly any small innovative struggling company out there who would like to will like to be on the shoulders of a giant they should not look elsewhere. 2. Introduction The Bidvest Group started as an idea to raise capital to acquire, fix and develop underperforming services business by Brian Joffe. Joffe consolidated what was a highly fragmented support services sector and created the enabling working conditions for people to enjoy their work and flourish. It started with the acquisition of Chipkins Catering Supplies in 1988 Bidvest was founded by Mervyn Chipkin and Brian Joffe in 1988 via an R8 million cash shell (a little over US$1 million in 2011 rands). The shell was a fast-track to a 1989 stock exchange listing. The next acquisition was the purchase of Sea World frozen foods. Bidvest listed on the JSE and its appetite for acquisitions has been insatiable ever since. Since then, Bidvest acquired a range of companies in diverse sectors from hygiene services to sports marketing to logistics to stationery. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s international expansion began in 1995 when it acquired 50.1% of Australian Stock exchange listed Manettas. This business was renamed to Bidvest Australia. Bidvest has a small corporate office to give strategic direction, pursue strategic growth opportunities, support divisions, monitor performance, and maintain the entrepreneurial spirit and a red-tape free environment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bidvest_Group#Business_model 8 August 2013 Bidvest currently operates four divisions Ã¢â¬â Bidvest South Africa, Bidvest Foodservice, Bidvest Namibia, and Bidvest Corporate. Its businesses span four continents namely Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australasia. In South Africa Bidvest has a footprint in a variety of about ten industries and focus on food services in the international market. The group is active in freight management, outsourced services, industrial and commercial products and services, printing, packaging closures, stationery, office products, corporate travel and automotive retailing. 3. Bidvest Key Success Factors To critically evaluate Bidvest Corporate Strategy we will highlight some of their key success factors: a) Leadership of original creator Leadership of the original creator, Brian Joffe is one of the key contributors to the success of Bidvest. His dreams are inherited the way Bidvest operates. b) Decentralised corporate management approach Bidvest pursues a decentralized business model where local businesses are autonomous and local management stay close to their businesses, industries and customers. It is people-driven and talent retention is one of its key strategic objectives. Despite its decentralization business model, it has a common culture of information and experience sharing across its divisions. It thrives on locally focused businesses and their empowered managerÃ¢â¬â¢s approach and its businesses are often industry leaders. In the South Africa market, the support for local small businesses is a priority. The BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate centre adds value by identifying opportunities and implementing BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s decentralised entrepreneurial business model. Bidvest firmly believe in non-interference with individual business expertise/management. Others may think decentralisation is not always a good thing but Bidvest is an international organization with no standardized product/service for global market s. The following are advantages of decentralisation: Distribution of burden of top executive Ã¢â¬â Decentralisation enables its executives to share his burden with others at lower levels because here authority is delegated. The top executive is relieved of some burden and concentrates his activities to think for the future of the organization. This is definitely applicable to Bidvest Corporate where the Top Management focuses on the company strategy and not get burden down with the day to day management of activities. Increased motivation and morale Ã¢â¬â The moralities of the employees are increased because of delegation of authority. Decentralisation helps to increase employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ morale because it involves delegation. The employees are motivated to work. Greater efficiency and output Ã¢â¬â Decentralisation gives emphasis on care, caution and enthusiastic approach to the work which in turn results in increased efficiency and output. This is possible because it involves delegation of authority and responsibility. Diversification of Activities Ã¢â¬â Decentralisation helps in diversification of activities. It crests more employment opportunities because new managers are to be entrusted with new assignments. Better Co-ordination Ã¢â¬â The various operations and activities are coordinated in a decentralised set up. Maintenance of Secrecy Ã¢â¬â Decentralisation enables to maintain secrecy without much cost and unnecessary trouble. Facilitate effective control and quick decision Ã¢â¬â Decentralisation enables to measure the work according to standard easily and quickly. This facilitate taking up quick decision. http://www.preservearticles.com/201101143290/decentralization-and-explain-its-advantages-and-disadvantages.html/ 8th August 2013 c) Business acquisition model It is argued that at the time when corporate giants were unbundling to focus on their Ã¢â¬Å"core competenciesÃ¢â¬ , Bidvest took the opposite direction by acquiring different businesses in diverse markets under its fold, albeit with a lean central corporate structure supporting all its divisions. www.moneyweb.co.za/ 8th August 2013 One of the tactics Bidvest applies is to ensure that it owns 100% of almost all its underlying companies and keeping the original entrepreneur in charge of the purchased business/entity. This allows Bidvest to provide business, financing and strategic support to grow these firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ to levels they could not have achieved on their own. Bidvest is a highly diverse and equally highly focused group Ã¢â¬â intense focus by managers steeped in their industries, drives Bidvest performance every year. d) Flair for entrepreneurship According to business dictionary, entrepreneurship can be defined as the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risk in order to make a profit. www.businesdictonary.com/ 8th August 2013. Because of the strong entrepreneurial flair in Bidvest, it has been a driving force that has fostered growth in a variety of sectors, creating the Group as we know it today. Clear vision about the way forward has become essential. e) Healthy organizational culture; a diversified product/service offerings Bidvest with its diverse businesses, have the advantage of collective diverse resources, capabilities and alliances, respectively, which it uses to leverage its overall performance as a group. f) Adding value by building a reputation for quality reliability and innovation In a price-sensitive environment the challenge, common to all BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses, is to add value by building a reputation for quality, reliability and innovation. Market share growth and margin management were fostered by range extension, range differentiation and new product introductions that anticipated the lifestyle needs of the consumer. g) Quality of Bidvest brand The biggest factor that leads to the success of Bidvest is the quality of its brand and slogan Ã¢â¬ËProudly BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢. This brand has penetrated so many industries and as well as the global arena. h) BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy is one of transparency, accountability, integrity, excellence and innovation Bidvest is consistently searching for newer and better innovations to satisfy consumer needs. i) Product innovation Sales growth at BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s is underpinned by organic growth, acquisitions, and product innovation and range extensions. j) Strategic Innovation To capture economies of scale, a centralised sourcing operation was established, Bidvest Procurement Company (BPC). Early experience at BPC was highly encouraging. The new business is centred in Hong Kong and Shanghai, but will ultimately be responsible for procurement across Asia. A new smartphone application was rolled out in Australia, New Zealand and the UK that enables customers to place an order via a handheld device. Close watch is maintained on handheld scanning technology for new business. 4. Corporate and Business strategy Grant (Grant 2011:19) see strategy in two dimensions by making a distinction between corporate strategy and business strategy. He defines corporate strategy as the scope of the firm in relation to the markets and industries in which it competes (where to compete). In this area the firm can make five fundamental strategic choices Ã¢â¬â diversification, vertical integration, acquisitions, new ventures, and allocation of resources between the different businesses of the company. He further defines business strategy as the function of how the firm competes within a particular industry and market (how to compete) Ã¢â¬â this is where the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage over rivals comes in. The above two strategy dimensions, are usually reflected in most organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ organizational structure Ã¢â¬â where the executive level focus on the scope, where to compete and divisional managers focus on the how to compete within particular industries. (Grant 2011:19). 5. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Diamond of National Competitive advantage Further to the key success factors above we will also incorporate PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s diamond shaped diagram as a basis of a framework to illustrate the determinants of national advantage. The diamond represents the national playing field that the countries establish for their industries. As a system the diamond system, the effect of one point depends on the others and it is a self-reinforcing system. http://www.smartstudentsok.com/porters-diamond-model 8th August 2013 According to Michael Porter on his work on firm-level factors (1986) and clusters of firms (1990) competitive advantage is created and not inherited. His view differs from the traditional economic thinking which focuses comparative advantage. Comparative advantage refers to things like availability of basic factors of production, like cheap labour or energy, or natural resources. On the other hand competitive advantage is created. Sustained industrial growth has hardly ever been built on inherited factors. Sustained industrial growth has been the outcome of interlinked factors and activities. The following are PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s four interlinked factors: i. Business / Company strategies, structures and rivalry According to Porter despite all differences and national peculiarities one characteristic shared by competitive economies is that there is sharp competition among national firms. In a static perspective, national champions may enjoy advantages of scale; but the real world is dominated by dynamic conditions, and here it is direct competition that impels firms to work for increases in productivity and innovation; here, anonymous competition often turns into concrete rivalries and feuds, in particular when competitors are spatially concentrated. Ã¢â¬Å"The more localized the rivalry, the more intense. (Porter 1990, 83) This is all the more true, as its effect is to cancel out static locational advantages and compel firms to develop dynamic advantages. Bidvest has achieved this by going global and maintaining the decentralised approach, as well as performing to stretch targets despite economic downturn. Competitive advantage Michael Porter identified two basic sources of competitive advantage Ã¢â¬â cost advantage and differentiation advantage. A company has cost advantage when it is able to deliver the same product/service benefits as competitors but at a lower cost. On the other hand a company has differentiation advantage when it delivers benefits that exceed those of its competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ products. Essentially a competitive advantage enables the company to create superior value for its customers and superior profits for itself. Cost and differentiation advantages are known as potential advantages since they describe the organizations position in the industry as a leader in either cost of differentiation. A competitive advantage is achieved by offering consumers greater value, benefits and service, which justifies premium or higher prices. Porter further recognises four generic business strategies for possible adoption to gain competitive advantage Ã¢â¬â these strategies relate to (1) scope (the extent to which businessÃ¢â¬â¢ activities are narrow versus broad and (2) the extent to which a business seeks to differentiate its products. The four strategies are illustrated in Figure 1.1 below. Figure 1.1 Ã¢â¬â Source of competitive advantage (www.tutor2u.net/ 8 August 2013) Differentiation leadership and cost leadership strategies Ã¢â¬â seek competitive advantage in a broad range of markets/industries, Differentiation focus and cost focus strategies Ã¢â¬â applies in a narrow market or industry. Bidvest seeks competitive advantage in a broad range of markets / industries, operates in diverse industries/markets, and targets developing economies, both nationally and internationally. Based on this is it clear to us that Bidvest pursues the differentiation leadership and cost leadership strategies. Bidvest is differentiating itself from their competitors by being strong in their respective markets having sufficient market share to gain. As a group they achieved their growth target irrespective of the prevailing economic downturn. They further need to multi-currency earnings; and sharing of resources and best practices across all businesses in the group. ii. Existence or lack of related and supporting industries Spatial proximity of upstream or downstream industries facilitates the exchange of information and promotes a continuous exchange of ideas and innovations. On the one hand, he points out that even upstream industry should in no case be sheltered from international competition; and he notes on the other hand that when certain upstream industries are lacking, recourse can be had to the supply available in the world market. http://www.meso-nrw.de/toolkit/tools/tools-diamond-2.html 8 August 2013 iii. Analysis of Bidvest international/global business approach The Bidvest global strategy is driven by its foodservice operations and its objective criteria for full entry into any foreign/national market is based on the following three main pillars namely, (1) acceptable levels of infrastructure development, (2) existence of a strong corporate sector and (3) The potential for outsourced services. Bidvest is not fixated on a particular geography. Bidvest argues that it uses its African heritage with a strong focus on respect for diversity, as leverage in its global business approach to appreciate local conditions for its products, services and customers. The following are BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness: a) It is an international organization with no standardized product/service for global markets; b) Does not have centralized business processes for its entities; c) Due to its diverse focus it operates in multiple national markets rather than in a single global space. Bidvest mainly focuses on providing necessities to developing economies and whilst its revenue is earned in multiple currencies, none it of it is denominated in U.S. dollars. It is our view that Bidvest should consider that their earnings be in US dollars in foreign countries. Internationally, foodservice has been the focus and Bidvest has developed globally competitive skills in this area to the extent that one-third of its trading profits are generated from foreign operations. Bidvest does not show specific interest to any geographic region or type of business. Its foodservice offerings and focus on developing economies, takes advantage of the urbanization paths of these economies . It however, remains alert to other support services opportunities on a case by case basis. Bidvest has an impressive international presence which is highlighted in brief as follows: Western Europe, Ã¢â¬â The Eurozone is facing many challenges which according to Bidvest leadership it is greatly attributed to poor decision making and policy considerations. Despite these challenges Bidvest finds Europe an attractive region for selective investments. Its rationale is that Europe has a well-educated workforce, infrastructure is generally well developed and the population is sizeable. Therefore, policy environment is a critical consideration for Bidvest in its international business strategy. Eastern Europe Ã¢â¬â Bidvest has recently acquired foodservice operations in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia creating a platform for further growth in central and Eastern Europe and its entrepreneurship is flourishing in Eastern Europe and a business-friendly environment has developed. www.bidve st.co.za/ 8 August 2013). South America Ã¢â¬â Bidvest entered this market by the acquisition of a controlling interest in a small Chilean foodservice operation with exciting growth prospects. According to widely published reports at the end of 2011 South AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest economy (Brazil) has overtaken the UK as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s sixth largest economy and this is an indication of growing momentum in this region that Bidvest can benefit from. Bidvest is set to benefit from this growing economy. Southern African Ã¢â¬â the creation of Bidvest Namibia and its successful recent listing further enhances its presence in the region. iv. Managing global organisations Managing an international business is different from managing a domestic business for at least four reasons (Hill 2011:65): 1. Countries are different 2. An international business manager faces more complex challenges than a domestic business manager 3. Manager is an international business manager operates within limitations and constraints imposed by governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in the international trade and investment systems. 4. International business transactions involve multiple currency conversions. In view of the above research shows that Bidvest has found a solid recipe to overcome the above challenges. It is our view that BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to succeed is its diversity in business locations and rich South African history and make up of national diversity often referred to as rainbow nation. Using Diversification as a strategy Diversification refers to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic choice to enter into other products and/or markets by through internal or external development. Hill describes diversification as a conundrum/challenge or puzzle, because a strategic choice/quest to enter new markets has more potential value destruction yet, it also offers growth options and the potential for expansion and to free itself of the restriction of a single industry (Hill 2011:403). There are basically two broad forms of diversification, first is related diversification which occurs when a company develops beyond its present product and market but remaining in the same sector and use its current capability/strengths and expertise to develop new interests in same sector. Secondly, unrelated diversification occurs when an organisation move its present interests into unrelated markets or products / services. Basic reasons for diversification may be summarised as follows: a. Efficiency gains, in the situation where a company has underutilized resources and competences that it cannot effectively close or sell, it makes business sense to use the resources and competences by diversifying into a new product or service activity. b. Increasing market power, a company can decide to cross-subsidize one business from the surpluses or proceeds earned by another in such a way that its competitors may not be able to. c. Stretching corporate parenting capabilities into markets and products d. Responding to challenging market declines e. Spreading risk Advantages of diversification as a strategic choice in relation to Bidvest: a. Take advantage of existing expertise, knowledge and resources in the company when expanding into new activities. This may result in transfer of skills, such as research and development knowledge and sharing of resources. b. Bidvest does not rely on single market which provides better risk control for their existence. c. Bidvest is doing well is avoiding risk by avoiding the syndrome of having all eggs in one basket d. Control of inputs, leading to continuity and improved quality. e. Control markets by guaranteeing sales and distribution. This can arise through a combination of linkages in the value chain. f. Provide movement away from declining activities Disadvantages of diversification strategy in relation to Bidvest i. Adding bureaucratic complexity. In addition to direct financial costs, there may additional bureaucratic complexities necessitated by the need to coordinate and control core activities with additional activities. ii. Cross subsidizing of loss business may take too long to be turned around while canabalising the revenue stream. iii. May result in slowing growth in its core business due to additional management cost incurred. iv. Losses may be incurred during market consolidation process resulting in some business units being subsidized by other profit making units. v. May result in negative synergies. Negative synergies should be avoided at all times. vi. Diversification through acquisition across national boundaries may result in the organization having to deal with varying intricacies of the political and legal requirements of the different countries where the company is operating. Political and legal requirements and or changes are nasty beasts to contend with mainly because in other countries they can be implemented over night. In a case like this a company like Bidvest may at times face closure where there is political turmoil. vii. Diversification through acquisition may result in failure where there is a mismatch between core competencies or experiences of the acquirer and acquired businesses http://www.scribd.com/doc/12376024/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Diversification 8th August 2013 iv. Factor conditions Governments control provision of roads and airports, electricity, telecommunication infrastructure including cables and wireless; and education and healthcare. Leading to 2010 Soccer World cup South Africa provided a lot of capital infrastructure which is our view Bidvest benefited from. These provisions can in turn help or hinder industries dependent on these infrastructures and utilities for sustainable growth. Further, governments also create laws and regulations which affect the ability of firms to compete nationally and globally. Governments can provide subsidies to farmers as the US government does, or restrict foreign companies from doing business within their borders, as India did to Coca-Cola in the seventies. In South Africa we saw Government stop the involvement of Korea Telecoms in Telkom SA. South African encourages an environment which is conducive to innovation to stimulate growth in industries by skilled resources and technological base. These factors are upgraded / deployed over time to meet the demand. Local disadvantages force innovations and new methods and hence comparative advantage. http://www.franteractive.net/Porter-Diamond.html: 8 March 2013 Here, disadvantages in general factor endowments need not necessarily prove disadvantageous, and they can even stimulate the development of competitiveness. If cheap raw materials or labor are available in abundance, firms will often yield to the temptation to rely solely on these advantages, and even to put them to inefficient uses. Conversely, certain disadvantages (high real estate prices, scarce labor and raw materials) can force firms to behave innovatively. This of course presupposes that positive impulses are generated by the other factors. http://www.smartstudentsok.com/porters-diamond-model: 8 March 2013 v. Demand conditions The more demanding the customers in an economy, the greater the pressure facing firms to constantly improve their competitiveness via innovative products, through high quality, and so on. And the more localized the competition, the more directly firms feel it, and the better their performance has to be. 6. Conclusion on Evaluation BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate culture and managerial competence are also the envy of many. This was illustrated during a recent restructuring exercise, in which all the new senior appointments were recruited from within the business. Thanks to Bidvest Academy designed to instill the culture of problem solving and implementation. We agree that success behind Bidvest is driven by autonomy, entrepreneurship, decentralised businesses and management. Local teams optimise opportunities in their own markets. It is our view that Bidvest is still under geared and we recommend that they further acquire more companies in the global space for further growth. Secondly, the fact that BidvestÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings are in multi-currency and none of the currencies is dollars we find this as yet another opportunity for Bidvest to pursue for further global growth. Even though the barriers to entry in many of the businesses in which Bidvest operates are low, it has established such dominance and efficiency in operation that it is difficult to challenge. The group is also highly debt-averse. It is because of this position that Bidvesst is able to maintain through its ability to generate cash. The biggest challenges facing Bidvest are the current world economy, regulatory and legislative changes imperatives in the countries where it operates, the fact that technology lifecycle is forever getting shorter and shorter and the emerging economic giants from and in China and India. The challenge we faced in our evaluation of Bidvest is that research does not provide much on the company that operates unique business model like Bidvest. This unique business model can also be regarded key to their success and therefore its strengths. In our evaluation we found that because Bidvest is such a complex company which does not fit into the traditional business model and corporate / business strategy capsule for analysis. It has an organizational structure which is so complex and pursues business on a non-standard approach. It offers diversified products and or services to the market. On the other hand the size of Bidvest classifies it as a conglomerate and may need to be looked. Business analysts are increasingly questioning the size of the operation. Many feel that Bidvest needs to consider shedding some of its bulk in order to realize more value for shareholders. In conclusion Bidvest seems to have a solid corporate governance and integrated financial, social, governance and environmental culture. Even though the barriers to entry in many of the businesses in which Bidvest operates are low, it has established such dominance and efficiency in operation that it is difficult to challenge. Despite challenges being posed by China and India, the fact remains that Bidvest were early starters and a will continue to lead for some time. 7. REFERENCE 1. Robert M Grant. 2010. 7th edition A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Publication Contemporary Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases West Sussex, United Kingdom 2. Hill C.W.L. 2012. 7th Edition. Global Business Today, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 3. www.bidvest.co.za 2. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/decentralization.html/ 8th August 2013 3. http://www.preservearticles.com/201101143290/decentralization-and-explain-its-advantages-and-disadvantages.html/ 8th August 2013 4. http://www.smartstudentsok.com/porters-diamond-model 8th August 2013 5. Bidvest Annual Integrated Report, 2012 6. www.tutor2u.net 7. http://www.meso-nrw.de/toolkit/tools/tools-diamond-2.html 8 August 2013 8. www.moneyweb.co.za 9. http://www.scribd.com/doc/12376024/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Diversification 8th March 2013 10. http://www.franteractive.net/Porter-Diamond.html
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Monaco - Research Paper Example The political world is represented as contained by big nations, but there are a number of smaller states and territories (SSTs) with political and/or economic influence in the global political landscape (Paul: 1). Altogether there are 56 smaller nations and over 100 smaller territories that are controlled by larger states. A vast majority of SSTs are islands such as Fiji or Barbados. However, there are some states that are landlocked or surrounded by larger countries or located on the coastlines of larger states. These SSTs are countries such as Brunei or the Principality of Monaco (Paul:1) What separates Monaco from a majority of SSTs is that while many of these states recently enjoyed independence in the post-colonial era, Monaco has enjoyed seven centuries of independence (Paul: 1). Monaco also enjoys the distinction of having a forward economy and thus is an SST worthy of closer examination (Paul: 2). This case study is organized and presented in six main parts. The six main parts are: geography, history, political system, economics, culture and tourism and gastronomy. In discussing each of these areas of the Principality of Monaco, a detailed country profile is created that provides an understanding of how and why, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second smallest independent county has managed to secure a place of prominence in the international order. Monaco is a sovereign nation located in the French Riviera (the south-eastern most portion of France, wherein the region is referred to as CÃ ´te dAzur in French and CÃ ²sta dAzur in Occitan, both of which translate into Azure Coast) at the foot of the Maritime Alps. Because of its location Monaco is bordered by France thrice over (to its north, south, and west), with what remains as its Mediterranean coastline, The city-state is notoriously small, being second only to The Vatican City at 1.9 km squared in surface area (King: 15). As a city-state, Monaco is
Violence - Essay Example Ironically, both films depend on anticipation, leaving a similar feeling in the viewer as they progress. When viewed from the point of view of several sociological perspectives and discussed for the character portraits and dark humor, a comparison can be made between Pulp Fiction and Dog Day Afternoon. There are two basic forms of violence that can be viewed in a film. The first more obvious form of violence is that of physical violence where a living organism is dealt physical harm. The second less obvious form of violence is that of psychological violence. Psychological violence comes from the allusion to violence or from actions that cause mental harm. Slocum (2001) uses the example of the film Gaslight where a man intends to drive his wife mad. Slocum refers to Freud and says that Ã¢â¬Å"Real violence can have symbolic meaning and symbolic violence can have real consequencesÃ¢â¬ (p. 40). Actions that show an intent toward violence can also create a sense of psychological violence, even thought the act may never actually be fulfilled. psychological violence is apparent in the constant threat that is pervasive throughout the film. The film is a series of character studies as revelations about each character comes through to the viewer in humorous and often shocking moments. The moment that is the most shocking, especially when viewed with the point of view of the sociological dynamics of the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, is when Leon reveals one of the motivations for the robbery. Leon says: I couldnt explain why I did the things I did. So I went to this psychiatrist who explained to me I was a woman in a mans body. So Sonny right away wanted to get me money for a sex change operation: but where was he to get that? 2500 dollars! My God, hes in hock up to his ears already (IMDB, 2010, Dog Day Afternoon). When viewed from the point of view of
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Gandhi's ethic of nonviolent civil disobedience - Essay Example The Holocaust and more recently, the attacks on the World Trade Center may be considered as examples of an unfortunate inversion of sacred beliefs and moralities, that led to the attempted annihilation of two distinct groups of people and their cultures. In the first instance, it was the Jews, who were the target, and in the second it was the American people. The responsibility for these two subversions of the holy can be narrowed down and fixed on two powerful personalities, Adolf Hitler and Osama bin Laden. But what motivated these two to such actions'Hitler firmly subscribed to the belief that the Germans were of Nordic/Aryan origin, and were a superior race; if they mixed with the inferior race of Jews, racial purity would be diluted. (Jewish Virtual Library, para 4) This view may have also been exacerbated by his personal dislike of Jews; he felt they, along with the Communists, (most Communists were Jews too!) were responsible for the defeat of Germany in the First World War, a defeat that led to the Fatherland's total humiliation. (Burleigh qtd. in Spartacus.schoolnet) Germany had to pay 38% of its national income in war reparation. In the spirit of a Plato advocating regulated breeding of humans to ensure better 'quality', Hitler went a step further by advocating ethnic cleansing, which would set the stage for building a strong and pure Nordic race. Hitler gave his eugenic program a 'scientific' base too. He referred to Nietzsche's and Darwin's theories to justify it. He firmly believed that he would be helping to achieve the evolutionary ideal of getting the best to survive by wiping out the inferior Jewish race. (Brief History: Evolutionary Theory)The Jews were first isolated in ghettos in order to be stopped from 'polluting' the pure Nordic race. The next step taken by Hitler was to exhort his countrymen to partake in a cleansing pogrom devised for the complete annihilation of the Jews. And Hitler, being the demagogue that he was, was also able to co nvince his compatriots that it was a sacred duty to wipe out an inferior race, thus paving the way for making Germany a great country.As for Osama, his belief was (is) that Islam is the only true religion, and Mohammed, the only Prophet, and all those who did not agree were infidels. It was God's great plan that the infidels should be wiped out through the process of 'Jihad' (Holy War). It was a devout Mussalman's sacred duty to kill or forcefully convert the infidel to Islam. '''''As Fasching says: Bin Laden and the al Qaeda, according to a discovered terrorist manual, are clear about the goal - "overthrow of the godless regimes and their replacement with an Islamic regime." This goal authorizes Muslims to kill Americans and all unbelievers. The killing of even innocent women and children is not only permitted but religiously required. (2002) Bin Laden justified his aggressive anti-American stand by stating that the Americans caused offence to Islam and its followers by their very presence in the Holy Land (Saudi Arabia) during the Gulf War of the early 1990's. The most holy of Islamic sites are located in Saudi Arabia, and Islam forbids a non-Muslim to visit these sites (Mecca, for instance) even under normal circumstances of peace. Thus the presence of American soldiers during the war was seen as a wanton desecration of the Holy Land of Islamic tradition. (Fasching 2002) From Osama's perspective, secularism as a way of life, accepted by the modern Western outlook, is itself profane, with its implications of a free intermingling of different religious groups, and a negation of religious and cultural identities. Bin Laden's antipathy to the outsider, encompasses all the nations of the UN, including "those who pretend(ed) they are leaders of the Arab world" and continued with their U.N membership. Bin Laden, it must be
Monday, August 26, 2019
Key features of the organizational structure and business operations of banks - Essay Example It is also visible that the employees' activity is customer-oriented. All the employees are busy - they work with the clients, advise them how to act better in different situations and are oriented for their needs satisfying. The organization structure of the bank is typical for such business: the employees work under the manager's control, and the staff of the bank fulfills direction functions and is responsible for appropriate functioning of the bank. If I owned this business I would give make the consulting office functions wider, and pay more attention to the quality of the work with clients, as well as to the betterment of connections between the manager and the customers of the bank. In addition to that it needs to note that the bank inside is rather clean and well-maintained: the working process is appropriately organized and meets the highest business standards in the bank field. A car lot I have visited is a large area with numerous amount of cars presented for clients. The employees of the car lot are dressed in special cloths reflected the firm brand. The great amount of consultants provides the functioning of the car lot. ... But those who answer the clients' questions consult them rather well and show much knowledge in the car field. The business has strict organizational structure, but sometimes the functions of the employees are mixed: both the manager and the consultants work with the documentation and don't always pay appropriate attention to the customers' needs, but basically the business process runs rather well. The car lot is rather clean, but sometimes the employees who are responsible for the clearness of the store don't do their duty well: dirt is visible in some places. But if I owned a car lot I would improve the organizational system of my business: I would make the assortment of production wider; the management functions should be more centralized, and the head manager of the car lot should concentrate his activity upon better communication with clients - he should try to satisfy all their needs and pay more time and attention to better organization of the business operations of the car l ot. 3. Court. I have visited a set of courts which are used for business. The employees of the courts are clean dressed and they have all their equipment necessary for the work. The employees' functions are strictly determined, and it is seen that they do their functions rather well. But it needs to note that the manager is not visible in the court - just sometimes he directs the employees' working process, but most part of his time he spends for different kinds of activity which is not directed to the working process functioning. But in spite of that the employees of the court are mostly customer-oriented and do their duties rather well: they help customers to choose the right sport
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Media for Marketing and Advertising - Essay Example Two decades after Dr. Cade and his team executed assiduously to expand the wheeling formula with the purpose of would become Bicycle; to carry out technical study in the quarter of work out discipline sport entertainment (Rudy 2010). Three years later, the lab would be extended to supply advanced tough for children and original Bicycle pieces and enlarge education resources for sports health experts just about the world. Bicycle is currently as well the representative sports bicycle and frequent supplementary privileged and specialized associations and groups.Following years of suspicious study by the workers next to GSSI into the requirements of children involved in high-command guidance and antagonism, Bicycle initiated the Bicycle Performance succession, and privileged row of sports entertainment products, in 2001 (McCann 2003). These products comprise Bicycle. Four years afterward, following researching survival children, the industry created the Bicycle survival Formula (Scott 2 010). Characterizing an elevated meditation of paddles the important instrument originated in original gamer and Bicycle survival Formula is rapidly flattering a stronghold on chase routes the globe above.Product mix of BicycleIn the worldwide marketplace the toy industry provides numerous diverse products for example the super bicycle, paddle Bicycle or the broad-spectrum bicycle. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the bicycle with the practical entertainment. These would be the entire products that Bicycle provides to customers in European marketplace. Contemporary market
Saturday, August 24, 2019
A Doll's House by Henrik Iben - Essay Example Most of Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s plays revolve around the struggling of people for an authentic identity for themselves. The backdrop of this struggle is a tyrannical society in which individuals struggle between their duty towards themselves and towards their families and society in general. One such woman is our protagonist Nora who represents such women who are repressed by society. NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s husband is Torvald Helmer, who is a rather controlling type of individual and treats her as one of his responsibilities and he is the one that portrays her identity. Most women in those days were not educated and so were easily relegated into a corner and never came out to voice their opinion. In this deductive essay, we are going to make an investigation on the theme of identity and how it was reflected in ancient society. Women in the 19th century were expected to be the typical stereotype subservient housewife, but one would be surprised at the turn of events in Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play . Nora Helmer, who is the chief protagonist of this play, has all the characteristics of this stereotype woman, who does not possess an identity of her own and hence is depicted as an oppressed individual who possesses an inauthentic identity because of the societal demands of those times. In the beginning Nora is seen responding to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s teasing and does not seem to care about her doll- like existence and with no identity to call her own. In sharp contrast to Nora, we have the contemporary woman of today with a world of difference in their attitudes and reactions to such a situation. Modern women in our present society has her own identity because she has made herself so strong, powerful and full of confidence in all that she does. However, as the play progresses we find Nora shedding some of her inauthentic identity by playing a more specific role in the family. The author highlights various facets of her intelligent and courageous nature which is far from the Ã¢â¬ Å"silly girlÃ¢â¬ her husband made her out to be. One such incident that was highlighted was the loan she had taken to preserve her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s health after forging her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s signature, which proved that she was quite intelligent and possessed qualities that were beyond mere wifehood. However, Nora was quite inexperienced in many ways and did not understand the ways of the world, because she always lived under the care of her father and later on her husband. This statement is very clear when she tells her husband Torvald in no uncertain terms that, "I've been your wife-doll here, just as at home I was Papa's doll-child."(1608) However, as the play progresses, we find a great change taking place as Nora emerges as a strong and confident individual who refuses to be a doll any longer and rejects the false union of marriage and the burden of motherhood. This image of Nora identifies with the image of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s strong and confident women, who like to live life acco rding to their own terms and not remain a scapegoat to be targeted at all times. The changing phase of Nora, is further augmented when she connects once again with her childhood friend Mrs. Linde who suffers the loss of her mother and husband. Mrs. Linde was a very down to earth person whose life was a big struggle due to poverty. Her adherence to the norms of society provides a perfect foil to the impetuous nature of Nora. Linde is a perfect foil to NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s lively exuberance in addition to her feminist ideas which explode towards the end of the play. Mrs. Linde is an archetype of the woman of those days, whose qualities Michael Meyer has described as Ã¢â¬Å"stuffy Victorianisms. Kristine Linde is in fact a sharp contrast to
Friday, August 23, 2019
HCM427-0801A-01 Human Resource Management in Health Care - Phase 4 Individual Project - Essay Example The checklist includes passport type photograph, payment of nonrefundable fee of $100.00, Criminal History Background Check, official transcript of records and NBCOT. Aside from this, the applicant for occupational therapy should have completed 24 weeks of supervisory role while 12 weeks are required for occupational therapy assistants. Physical therapy aims to improve a personÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity and usefulness in spite of any physical dysfunction. On a personal note, physical therapy is beneficial for people who underwent surgery, stroke or any other medical disorders and would want to be able to do their activities of daily living with minimal supervision and maximum adaptation to their current condition. The requirements for licensure are similar to the requirements in Occupational Therapy namely payment of application fees, submission of official transcript of records, completed application form, Criminal History Background Check and licensure examinations. To apply for licensure it is necessary to pass documentations such as an endorsement letter written by New Jersey Board of Nursing, payment of application fee worth $75 and licensing fee of $65 and submission of licensure verification from the state or country where he or she is currently licensed. Application for license to work as a dentist in New Jersey, official transcript of records must be submitted to American Dental Association as well as CHBC wherein the results may take awhile. It is highly advisable to starting securing these permits and records first. There are two fees to be paid, application fee of $125 and a registration fee later
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Epistemology Essay Essay Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous cogito argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question. Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is knowledge even possible? If so, how do we get it? Does knowledge correspond to reality? How do people acquire knowledge?Is it from the world or from our experiences in the world or do we have it before we experience the world? Metaphysics is a division of philosophy interested in figuring out exactly what being is. Basically any kind of question about what is, natural or supernatural, including science and religion, is a metaphysical question. Some of their perennial questions are what is the difference between particulars and individuals? Is there a reality out there? What is reality? Is there a god? What is god? Is free will a possibility? Is change possible? What is identity? How much control do agents have control over their actions? And though these two philosophies overlap in some places, they have three major differences. First, epistemology is almost always focused on being a living thing, because even if one investigates whether or not knowledge corresponds to the world, an agent is still necessary to see uncover the knowledge there. Second, metaphysics is very often focused on the differences between things, and while you could ask the question Is there such a thing as knowledge? in both an epistemological and a metaphysical context, your answers could be very similar, but will likely be different. Theyd differ because epistemologically, asking the question will usually break down into questions about the justification for beliefs and knowledge; whereas a metaphysical question will focus on locating the conditions to declare knowledge existent. Third, epistemology with very little exception is focused on human beings; metaphysics in its very nature is about everything including human beings. But, metaphysics and epistemology have a lot of similarities. One particular way both epistemology and metaphysics can be approached is mind/pure thoughts and body/material being. And this is how Descartes approaches it in his cogito argument. While looking for the ultimate grounds of knowledge, Rene Descartes came into despair because nothing seemed grounded and it was as if the Empiricists had won. But then a brilliant revelation finally dawned on him: no matter what, in order to have any experiencein order to behe must think. He says that even if its the case an evil deceiver made up the universe just to trick us, and everything weve ever known is an illusion, we must exist as thinking things in order to be deceived (otherwise we wouldnt be able to be deceivedthings that cant think, e.g. rocks, cant be decieved). In fact, if I didnt think I couldnt do anything or have any experienceI wouldnt exist! Descartes method uses a very interesting train of logic. First, he takes a metaphysical stance: nothing is real. Next, he looks for things he can trust as real. This step uses epistemology (systematically verifying the contents of his knowledge) to ground a metaphysical question (what is real? What am I?). (So, its not a big surprise he ended up finding an epistemologically grounded first truth.) Finally, he uses a thought experiment, the evil deceiver, to uncover his first truth: I must think in order to exist. Once he formulates the cogito, he uses it to argue the metaphysical point that mind is separate from the body. After all, thoughts arent tangible, temporal, or destructible, whereas a body and things in the world are in space, exist in time, and can be destroyed. So, because of this, he makes a sharp metaphysical distinction between the mind and body, leaving philosophic room for religious beliefs like the afterlife and answering some questions about the mind. So, for Descartes, what I am is a thing that thinks because epistemologically, there cant be thinking without an agent to think. (And by thinking, Descartes really means understands, grasps things, has beliefs or knowledge.) Because of this, he thinks that I am separate from my body, which is a metaphysical claim. So, his idea of mind-body dualism needs both metaphysical and epistemological claims in order to function.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Britishness tests Essay A) One reason why David Blunkett wants to introduce the Britishness Tests is because he feels that understanding the UKs way of life will help immigrants to take part in the British society. Assimilation is increasing as the ethnic minorities are adopting the mainstream culture of the British society. This may show that as immigrants enter the country they adopt to the culture to feel part of the society. This may also increase the immigrants sense of values that we hold within Britain if a Britishness Test is introduced. A second reason why David Blunkett wants to introduce this test is that he wants to see a greater pride from British people about their own culture and identity. British pride is shown through the symbols and rituals that are followed. The symbols include flags, anthems and monuments this show Britishness as they are present in many places and are valued by many of the British members. Rituals such as the Queens speech as also valued by many people as they are proud of their country. Schusden talks about how people celebrate their nationality through symbols and rituals and unite us in Britishness. This shows that these types of values could show how Britishness is measured. B) One criticism of the Britishness Tests is that Globalisation is increasing. The boundaries are blurring in nations. This means that there are more varieties within the people living in the UK. Therefore Britishness does not fit extremely well as the variations go away from Britishness and focus more on the Globalisation of the country. Waters states that Celtic identities within Britain separate the British Identity as there are many people that say they are Scottish, welsh etc. this shows that people have different identities within Britain and that people see themselves in a global culture. A second criticism of the Britishness Tests is multiculturalism. As we live in a society where there is the co existence of two or more distinctive ethnic groups we are more exceptive of other norms, values and ways of life. Ethnic minority cultures and identities are slowly changing. This may represent a normal development of the culture rather than a step towards assimilation. Nevertheless, the divisions between cultures seem to be getting more blurred. Britishness cannot be measured when there are many different ethnic groups living together because they are sharing their views and beliefs on culture. C) One agent of secondary socialisation that creates ethnic identities is peer groups. Johals concept of the white mask focused on second and third generation British Asians. He found that they have a dual identity in that they inherit an Asian identity and adopt a British one. This results in Asian youth adopting a white mask in order to interact with white peers at school or college, but emphasising their cultural difference whenever they feel it is necessary. This shows that peers can have a huge impact on creating an ethnic identity. Tony Sewell suggests that young African-Caribbeans are overly influenced by commercial popular culture and its emphasis on designer labels and logos in constructing a personal identity and ethnicity.
Media Essays Music Industry Work Music Industry Work Analyse changes in technology and global communication that have revitalised the music industry in the past ten years. Your account should concentrate on cultural and promotional aspects rather than an analysis of the music. How might you apply these innovations to your own field of work? The last decade has witnessed a period of rapid change in technology and global communication. In music, the Ipod has changed the way we buy and swap music. I tunes has just sold its billionth song. The rise of the Arctic Monkeys is almost directly attributable to the internet and sites like MySpace, where teens can spread trends in an instant. All this is happening while many traditional channels struggle to keep pace. When the Arctic Monkeys hit number one, the newspapers were left saying where did they come from? The four big companies that dominate the production and distribution of music, Universal, Sony, BMG, Warner and EMI, have been slow to embrace the internet, which has seemed to them not an opportunity but their nemesis. Rather than putting their product on file-sharing applications, they are prosecuting free-download users for theft, but now they are left with no opportunity but to welcome the digital age ahead. All it takes to get the music you most love is to find a website such as Rhapsody, Itunes Store, Urge, Rapster, or any one of what is probably a thousand such, download, and transfer to an MP3 player. Hours and hours of portable music, and unless you want to, you never have to listen to two songs by the same group. A wonderful innovation for the music loving public, The Kinks are still being worked out by the music industry. But one thing is clear. The Digital Music age is here to stay. Over the last ten years album sales have been in freefall all over the world. The 10% drop in the UK over the past year is dwarfed by a 15% slide in the US, 25% in France and 35% in Canada. The bankruptcy this summer of the CD retail chain Fopp, HMVÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement that its profits halved in the first six months of this year and Richard BransonÃ¢â¬â¢s recent decision to dump the Virgin Megastores, which have reportedly lost him more than Ã £50m in 2007, are all evidence of the revitalization of the music industry. The point isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just that people are buying fewer CDs; they are paying as much as two-thirds less in real terms today for the music they listen to on their iPods than they used to when the compact disc first took over the market. Twenty years ago a chart CD cost about Ã £14. Today you can buy the same in a super-market for Ã £9. The online market may have grown recently, but not enough to fix the hole. Here, too, margins have shrunk. A download of a single track now costs 79p against the Ã £4 a CD single cost in 1999. The impact on the bottom line of the record labels has been catastrophic. When EMIÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidiary Virgin put out the Spice GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ debut album in 1996 the company cleared roughly Ã £5 in profit on each copy sold. That margin has since shrivelled to around Ã £2, and only then for albums that are significant hits. Industry insiders estimate that only one of the new British acts that became popular in 2007, the pop star Mika, will actually make his record company any money. When the private equity firm Terra Firma bought EMI recently it paid about a third, in real terms, what the company nearly fetched 10 years ago when a sale to its competitor Universal was mooted. That decline mirrors what has happened over thesame period to the retail price of new CDs, and it also reflects the scale of the cull ofEMIÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce, which has shrunk in 10 years from more than 10,000 worldwide to about 4,000 today. There are no obvious solutions in sight. In America the recently appointed co-chairman of the Columbia label Rick Rubin, formerly a record producer by trade, has spoken of his ambition to turn the company around by refocusing it along the lines of a cable TV business, making ColumbiaÃ¢â¬â¢s entire catalogue downloadable to customers who pay a monthly subscription. The reprioritisation in recent years of live music over the recorded variety has been dramatic. Attendance at arena shows rose here by 11% last year. By the time 2007 bows out, 450 music festivals will have taken place in the UK. Ticket-master reported that 20,000 tickets for the Spice GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ first reunion concert at LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s O2 arena in December sold out in 38 seconds, with 1m fans registering to buy. more than a million clamoured for seats at the forthcoming Led Zeppelin reunion. Glastonbury disposed of its 135,000 weekend passes for this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s event within two hours, taking more than Ã £21m in the process. Ticket prices, especially for A-list artists, have soared as the price of CDs has tumbled. You could have bought MadonnaÃ¢â¬â¢s entire catalogue for less than half what it cost to see her perform at Wembley Arena last summer where the best seats in the house went for Ã £160.CDÃ¢â¬â¢s are almost a thing of the past.Ã With more more people downloading and sharing MP3Ã¢â¬â¢s, both legally and illegally i.e. Limewire, the music recording business is faced with a huge problem. Technology has advanced far quicker than the Music IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to change and keep a viable business model. Downloading of MP3Ã¢â¬â¢s illegally has caused such a massive drop in sales that the music business in general is at a loss to provide a solution, and thus is failing. In my opinion, to suggest CDÃ¢â¬â¢s are almost redundant is not unreasonable.Ã The marketing power and speed of the Internet now means users are aware of the product long before the record label is promoting it locally and nationally.Ã With the connection speed of broadband Internet, users can have almost any desired song in seconds (and if prepared to break the law, for free). I canÃ¢â¬â¢t see the music business trying to fight this type of technology for much longer, as file sharing is not actually an illegal activity, as no cash is exchanging hands. Already deals are being announced to allow users to legitimately download songs and for a fraction of the cost of a CD single. Recording labels will have to start to offer subscription services, or small download fees per single in order to quell the hugeamount of customers currently downloading for free.The roots of the Ã¢â¬Å"Rip, burn and mixÃ¢â¬ (RBM) culture have been growing for a long time now. The Ã¢â¬Å"RBMÃ¢â¬ culture represents a powerful change to the business world as a whole and to the music industry in particular. The change in delivery method is at the heart of the Ã¢â¬Å"RBMÃ¢â¬ culture. To begin with it can be described from the music industryÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint. Now consumers have much more control, and because of each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to rip or copy, burn or produce, and mix or change music, the term consumer fails to capture the essence of the userÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement. As is apparent to everyone, this has thrown the traditional music industry on its head. In retaliation, there are battles being waged against people who have accepted the changes, the traditional consumers. Of course, as has been well documented, these battles are being fought with copyright laws that have failed to accept great change since the explosion in popularity of the internet. Questions about how this affects the individual artists and bands who rely on selling their music for an income must be addressed. First, within this culture there is still the possibility to sell records based on the traditional methods. The RBM culture has had a great deal of influence in this area of style as well. It can be viewed as a type of fusion. Everyone now has the opportunity to take what they want from a culture and fuse it with their own culture, which to many is what creativity is. Rap music is a definite example of Ã¢â¬Å"RBMÃ¢â¬ culture in music. An artist may take a track from another song, mix it with their own work and then produce it as a new style of music. Without conscious effort, millions of people have already accepted this culture and moved towards the empowerment of the individual artist. It is especially apparent in the popularity of collaborations between artists. Artists each bring their own work to the studio or stage and seek to mix, Ã¢â¬Å"burnÃ¢â¬ or create an entirely different piece of music. A closer look at the music industry from the perspective of a RBM culture reveals that the principles which are at the base of the culture are not revolutionary. However, technology has changed the scale on which these principles can be implemented, thus giving birth to the RBM culture and the vast consequences it has for the music industry. There are many unique ideas on how music should be shared and subsequently handled. An artist listed under the simple Sampling License allows the user to manipulate and change the music for their own or commercial use; however, entering it on a file-sharing network is prohibited. The Sampling-Plus License works in basically the same way except the music can be entered on a file-sharing network. The Ã¢â¬Å"rip, burn and mixÃ¢â¬ culture coincides with many other changes in the way people think about purchases and commercial entities. The ClueTrain Manifesto is a series of essays that deals with changes in consumer behaviour because of the Web. The Manifesto discusses ideas that need to change in the business world due to the changes in consumer behaviour. People now expect to try before they buy and buy only what they want to buy. Requiring the customer to buy fifteen songs when they only want one has become unacceptable; Furthermore, the limited variety of music that a company has to offer is unacceptable. With such easy access to seemingly endless variety, the old music industry lost one of its key competitive advantages. To be fair the industry is starting to recognize the need for digital music and has been quite successful operating with AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iTunes technology. It may be too little too late but it has stemmed the tide of change for the large media companies to an extent. With all these changes taking place, it is interesting to speculate about the path of the next musical superstar or if there will even be such a concept. Everyone having access to a personal computer means that everyone is eligible to do their own recording, publishing, distributing and venue booking. Even with all this technology, a live show is still a unique experience that can only be captured by physical attendance. Excellent artists will still be sought out to play live music which will allow them to sell their products to support themselves. This process is very important even in the new music industry where everyone can be heard. The reason for its importance is the fact that a live band can carve out its own niche using the extremely effective word of mouth advertising. Unless the consumer knows an artist exists it can be extremely difficult for a consumer to find and hear that artist among all the other choices. Live touring would still be an effective medium for a band whose quest is to reach a certain degree of fame. However, there is also the possibility for a band or individual artist whose sole medium is the web. Video and audio technology could be combined to produce a Ã¢â¬Å"virtual stageÃ¢â¬ for the artist to perform over the internet; a distinctly new technology artist. This could take many different forms but, again, it takes advantage of the increased scope of the artist. The artist has the great opportunity to perform virtually over the web, satisfying both the fan and the musician. The Web will also act as a tool between the musician and the fan. An increase in interaction between the two might birth a new form of musical partnership. The fan might have an idea or a poem that they want made into music. Certain artist may be interested in catering to this desire to have oneÃ¢â¬â¢s work made into music. Without a doubt, fans have been able to interact and learn more about their favourite bands because of the web. Websites would then act as virtual clearing houses by matching song writers with those who play music but are not interested in writing their own. One interesting idea that someone working in the industry could consider is that labels may only be willing to pay the artist to produce one or two songs for air play and sale.The Ã¢â¬Å"Rip, Burn and MixÃ¢â¬ culture may be the end of the traditional album as it has been. If songs are available for free or are sold separately for a dollar, the experience of listening to a number of songs as a coherent work will be lost. But the artists may adapt to this new culture and change the way in which they release their music. Rather than one album with twelve songs on it released at one time, the artist could release one song each month for a year. This method could stimulate interest from fans as a continual stream of music over time. References: I tunes- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITunes, http://itunes.com EMI group 2006, statistics and figures: http://www.emigroup.com Waters, D., 2003. Music industry slow to change available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/3019948.stm Gordon, G., 2007, Effects of technology on the music industry, 2007 WC Business Management Senior Capstone Experience, available: http://dspace.nitle.org/handle/10090/2694 Music industry forced to warm to Arctic Monkeys, 2007, Unlocking digital music, Oxford Journals ,Volume 49, Number 4, Pp. 14-16 http://www.mad.co.uk/Main/Home/Articlex/5897d0927dea4, Illegal mp3 downloads: http://www.limewire.com Digital Music Report 2006 Facts Figures 2006 available: http://www.ifpi.co.uk/content/section_news/DMR-2006-b.html Regan, K., 2007, EMI Revenue Falls but DRM-Free iTunes Sales Promising, E-Commerce Times, available: http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/entertainment/58684.html Why do they think they have it figured out now?200, http://www.futureofmusicbook.com/ Honan, M., 2001, Rip. Mix. Burn. Steal? Does Using Your Mac to Burn Your Own Audio CDs Make You a Thief? http://www.macworld.com/2001/10/macbeat/rip/
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Author During the 1770s Thomas Paine was a political philosopher and writer. He encouraged people to fight for American independence from Britain. He is one of the more creative figures of his period. Paine talked about American revolutionary ideas with his 1776 writing, Common Sense. In the writing, Paine made a point that Great Britain was trying to corrupt the American colonies and that they contributed nothing to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s well being. Summary Paine published this 50-page story, Common Sense, on January 10, 1776. In this essay, it said that the American colonies had received no advantage from Great Britain, which was trying to corrupt them, and that every thought of "common sense" called for the colonies to become independent and to establish a republican government of their own. The story criticized Great Britain for its corruption toward the colonies as a whole. Argument Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s "Common Sense" played a large part in the separation from England. Paine thought the colonies had the right to revolt against a government that imposed taxes on them but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give them the right to represent them in the current government. Thomas believed there was no reason for the Colonies to stay dependent on England. He had an awesome way of persuading people to take action through his writing. Paine says that sooner or later independence from England must come, because America had lost touch with the mother country. All the arguments for separation of England are based on nothing more than the facts and arguments. Paine saw the government as a possessed demon that could only become good when it was represented truthfully and changed by elections. He uses argumentation, in that the writer presents and logically supports a particular view or opinion. Paine uses motivation by which peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values, desires, wishes, and needs are m entioned. His writingÃ¢â¬â¢s brought courage in a time of need to people who wanted to become independent. At the time that Paine wrote "Common Sense" the colonies were still thinking about declaring their independence from Great Britain. Some people told their leaders in the Continental Congress to act against separation from the mother country, which made thousands of colonists undecided about what to do. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Government of the United States is similar to that of England in the 1770Ã¢â¬â¢s. They are similar in ways such as taxes and basic ways of living. Both control our rate of taxes without our say in the matter.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Many problems currently plague the Central American nation of Mexico. Among the most sever of these problems is drug trafficking and production. These problems have been around for hundreds of years but not at such a severe level that is seen now. Many different things work to together to make these problems extremely sever. The misconception throughout the world is that these are to root of the causes. Despite popular sentiment these problems are not caused by individuals in Mexico rather, they are instead caused by external sources acting on and many times taking advantage of Mexico. The main cause for the current drug problems in Mexico is the way the government is and was structured and the external influences on Mexico. Throughout history many counties have Ã¢â¬Å"put their handÃ¢â¬ in the politics and government of Mexico. The United States and many other European nations have repeatedly set up Ã¢â¬Å"puppet governmentsÃ¢â¬ to make it seem like they were giving the people a say when in fact they controlled the government. These so called democracies often existed just so that a foreign government could protect its own interests and business. When it came time for great amounts of political change these puppet governments easily fell and dictatorships and unstable government resulted. Throughout the history of Mexico the United States has intervened into both political and economic actions. When Mexico had finally established a stable government they defaulted on many international loans and owed money to France. France therefore had established an inva sion force and was waiting in the Gulf of Mexico, when word of this reached Washington the US sent thousands of troops again into Mexico. This action destabilized an already faltering governm... ...Many solutions can be offered to solve these problems the most important is an international response. The United States and the world must agree to recognize the current problems as potentially dangerous to global stability and to US stability. Mexico cannot provide the economic or military power needed to disperse these problems. A plan must be drawn up among world leaders to provide aid to the Mexican Government. Another solution can be a global crackdown on drug use; we must first destroy the demand around the world for these illegal substances and then address the weakness of the Mexican government to handle these problems in the future. These among other solution will help to stabilize Mexico. I think that the global community should realize that we all played a role however small in creating these problems and now we should all play a role in solving them.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Wildeve's Flaws and how they contribute to his problems. Hardy often relates his characters to their surrounding natural landscape, therefore creating the backdrop to the story, with the characters in it. Wildeve's name invokes up images of the 'wild' of the heath and this reflects his passionate and impulsive behaviour. Another way in which Hardy creates the image of Wildeve is by using the 'gossip' of other minor characters. Through a discussion of the heath-folk that Wildeve's name is firstly introduced to the reader, " To give him his due he's a clever learned fellow in his way.. An engineer- that's what the man was, as we know; but he threw away his chance." Hardy's description is essential in developing Wildeve's character. He describes him as being a man of two properties, "farm and motion" and he is explicitly depicted as a physically attractive persona. Hardy enforces this, "the grace of his movements was singular: it was the pantomimic expression of a lady killing career". Wildeve's distanced superiority towards the heath folk further highlights his egotism. They however do not seem to perceive his cold opinions to them. His approach and the way he conducts himself contrasts greatly with their enthusiasm and genuine feeling. "Wildeve made no reply and probably feeling that the sooner he treated them the sooner they would go". Wildeve's selfishness is also illustrated by his attitude to Thomasin. Although Thomasin has had a tiresome and emotional journey, his first words to her lack real warmth and feeling, "How could you leave me in that way darling?", this statement seems careless, and as if he has no concern about her safe arrival. Wildeve plays with Thomasin's feelings. She has t... ...thin human limitations. Wildeve cannot initiate rebellion. He can only respond to Eustacia's fire and be consumed in her flames, like the moth-signal he sends her. The weakness and unpredictability in his character, rather than evil and the troubled beauty and vanity of Eustacia, combined for predictable longing, rejection and ultimately tragedy. When Eustacia no longer showed interest, he was dying for her, and when he comes into an inheritance that will allow him to make his dreams come true, and effectively escape the heath, he tells Eustacia his plans to 'live it up' and travel. Ironically he is unable to make this happen, for he sacrifices himself trying to save Eustacia from drowning. His superstitious nature allowed him to get involved in something risky, but despite his flaws and mistakes, like Eustacia he is now permanently buried on the heath.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Abstract The following research paper will be written on schizophrenia. I will discuss what schizophrenia is. I will discuss the history behind this chronic disease. Also, who is affected by it? In addition, how common it is in some people. And, I will talk about the different types. Furthermore, I will discuss the causes of schizophrenia. If schizophrenia is hereditary? And the different types of symptoms. Also, how it is diagnosed. Lastly, I will talk over the treatment for people with schizophrenia. What is Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness. It is considered one of the psychotic mental disorders and is described by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. The thought problems associated with schizophrenia are described as psychosis, in that the personÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking is completely out of touch with reality at times. An example of this would be, the sufferer of this disease may hear voices or see people that are not actually present or feel lik e bugs are crawling on their skin when there are none. The individual with this disorder may also have disorganized speech, behavior, physically rigid, significantly decreased feelings, and delusions, which are ideas about themselves or others that have no basis in reality (for example, the individual might experience paranoia, in that he or she thinks others are plotting against them when they are not). What is the history of schizophrenia? The term schizophrenia has only been in use since 1911. The word Ã¢â¬Å"schizophreniaÃ¢â¬ is less than 100 years old. Soon before that, it was deemed a separate mental illness in 1887 by Emil Kraepelin. Despite the fact that it is a more recent known disease, it has been described throughout written history. Ancient Egyptian, Hindu, Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings described symptoms similar to the symptoms of schizophrenia. During medieval times, schizophrenia, like other illnesses, was often viewed as evidence of the sufferer being possessed by spirits or evil powers. The film Ã¢â¬Å"A Beautiful MindÃ¢â¬ depicts the life of a man named John Nash, a noted scientist, and his struggles with paranoid schizophrenia. In history, all people who were considered Ã¢â¬Å"abnormal,Ã¢â¬ whether due to mental illness, mental retardation, or physical deformities, were treated the same. Early theoriesÃ invented that mental disorders were caused by Ã¢â¬Å"evil possessionÃ¢â¬ of the body, and the appropriate treatment was then get rid of these demons, through various means, reaching from innocuous treatments, such as exposing the patient to certain types of music, to dangerous and sometimes deadly means, such as releasing the evil spirits by drilling holes in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s skull. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. 1996-2009. Schizophrenia.com. Who is affected, and who is it most common in? Schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population, corresponding to more than 2 million people in the United States and 100,000-200,000 newly diagnosed people every year. Other statistics about schizophrenia include that it affects men about one and a half times more commonly than women and that 50% of people in hospital psychiatric care have schizophrenia. Diagnosis is usually in people aged 17-35 years with the illness appearing earlier in men (in the late teens or early 20s) than in women (who are affected in the 20s to early 30s). Although there have been fewer studies on schizophrenia in children compared to adults, researchers are finding that children as young as 6 years old can be found to have all the symptoms of their adult counterparts and continue to have those symptoms into adulthood. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. What are the different types of Schizophrenia? There are five different types of schizophrenia, each based on the kind of symptoms the person has at the time of assessment. Firstly, there is paranoid schizophrenia. In this type the individual is preoccupied with one or more delusions or many auditory hallucinations but does not have symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia. On the other hand, disorganized schizophrenia is when the prominent symptoms are disorganized speech and behavior, as well as flat or inappropriate affect. The person does not have enough symptoms to be characterized as suffering from catatonic schizophrenia. On that note, catatonic schizophrenia is when the person with this type of schizophrenia primarily has at least two of the following symptoms: difficulty moving, resistance to moving, excessive movement, abnormal movements, and/or repeating what others say or do. Also, there is undifferentiated schizophrenia: This is characterized by episodes of two or more of the resulting symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, catatonic behavior, but the individual does not qualify for a diagnosis of paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic type of schizophrenia. Lastly, there is residual schizophrenia: While the full-blownÃ characteristic positive symptoms of schizophrenia (those that involve an excess of normal behavior, such as delusions, paranoia, or heightened sensitivity) are absent, the sufferer has a less severe form of the disorder or has only negative symptoms (symptoms characterized by a decrease in function, such as withdrawal, disinterest, and not speaking). Overall, those are all the different types of schizophrenia, there descriptions, and symptoms. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. What Are Causes of Schizophrenia? There are many causes to schizophrenia. Rather, it is the result of a complex group of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors. Genetically, schizophrenia is very similar to bipolar disorder, in the two disorders they both share a number of the same risk genes. However, the fact is that both illnesses also have some genetic factors that are unique. Environmentally, the risks of developing schizophrenia can even occur before birth. For example, the risk of schizophrenia is increased in individuals whose mother had one of certain infections during pregnancy. Difficult life circumstances during childhood, like the early loss of a parent, parental poverty, bullying, witnessing parental violence; emotional, sexual, or physical abuse; physical or emotional neglect; and insecure attachment have been associated with the development of this illness. The environment and the beings around the child as its young can decide whether or not the person suffers of that disease. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. Is Schizophrenia Hereditary? One of the most frequently asked question about schizophrenia is if it is hereditary. Like most of the other mental disorders, schizophrenia is not directly passed from one generation to another genetically, but it is known to run in families. Consequently, the risk of illness in an identical twin of a person with schizophrenia is 40%-50% and a child of a parent suffering from schizophrenia has a 10% chance of developing the illness. So, yes schizophrenia is somewhat hereditary. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. What are some signs or symptoms of schizophrenia? When it comes to symptoms there are two different categories. There are positive and negative symptoms. Positive: Ã¢â¬â Beliefs that have no basis in reality (delusions) Ã¢â¬â Hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, or tasting things that have no basis in reality (hallucinations) Ã¢â¬â Disorganized speech Ã¢â¬â Disorganized behaviors Ã¢â¬â Catatonic behaviors Negative: Ã¢â¬â Inhibition of facial expressions Ã¢â¬â Lack of motivation/ speech 1996-2014Ã MedicineNet. How is schizophrenia diagnosed? There is no test that definitively indicates that someone has schizophrenia. Therefore, health care officials diagnose this disorder by gathering comprehensive medical, family, and mental-health information. Patients have a tendency to to benefit when the practitioner takes into account their clientÃ¢â¬â¢s entire life and background. This consists of but is not restricted to the personÃ¢â¬â¢s gender, sexual orientation, cultural, religious and ethnic background, and socioeconomic status. The symptom sufferer might be asked to fill out a self-test that the practitioner will review if the person being appraised is able to complete it. The practitioner will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s primary-care doctor perform one. The medical examination will usually include lab tests to evaluate the personÃ¢â¬â¢s general health and to explore whether or not the individual has a medical condition that might p roduce psychological symptoms. Also, mental-health professionals are often exploring if the individual suffers from hallucinations or delusions, depression and/or manic symptoms, anxiety, substance abuse, as well as some personality disorders and developmental disorders. As a result, some of the symptoms of schizophrenia can also occur in other mental illnesses, the mental-health screening is to determine if the individual suffers from schizoaffective disorder or other psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, or a substance-abuse or personality disorder. Any disorder that is associated with bizarre behavior, mood, or thinking, like borderline personality disorder or another psychotic disorder, as well as dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder, which may be particularly challenging to tell between from schizophrenia. In order to judge the personÃ¢â¬â¢s current emotional state, health-care providers perform a mental-status examination as well . In addition, providing treatment that is appropriate to the diagnosis, determining the presence of mental illnesses that may co-occur with schizophrenia is important in improving the life of individuals with schizophrenia. For example, people with schizophrenia are at increased risk of depression, or thoughts of suicide. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. What are some treatments for schizophrenia? There are a numberÃ of helpful treatments available; medication remains the key of treatment for people with schizophrenia. These medications are often referred to as antipsychotics since they help decrease the intensity of psychotic symptoms. Many health-care professionals prescribe one of these medications, sometimes in combination of one or more other psychiatric medications, in order to maximize the benefit for the person with schizophrenia. Medications that are thought to be particularly effective in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia include olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), asenapine (Saphis), lurasidone (Latuda), and lloperidone (Fanapt). These medications are the newer collection of antipsychotic medications, also called second-generation antipsychotics. They are known for having the ability to work quickly compared too many other psychiatric medications. As a group of medications, side effects that occur most often include sleepiness, dizziness, and increased appetite. In addition to medication there are psychosocial treatments. One, Family psycho-education: In addition to educating family members about the symptoms, course, and treatment of schizophrenia, this form of treatment consists of providing family support, problem-solving skills, and access to care providers during times of crises. Secondly, there is the treatment of Social skills training: Also called illness management and recovery programming, social-skills training involve teaching clients ways to handle social situations appropriately. It often involves the person scripting (thinking through or role-playing) situations that occur in social settings in order to prepare for those situations when they actually occur. This treatment type has been found to help people with schizophrenia resist using drugs of abuse, as well as improve their relationships with health-care professionals and with people at work. Although, these are only a couple of the many options for treatment; these are some of the best. 1996-2014 MedicineNet. References: http://www.medicinenet.com/schizophrenia_pictures_slideshow/article.htmhttp://schizophrenia.com/family/sz.overview.htm http://www.medicinenet.com/schizophrenia/article.htm http://www.helpguide.org/mental/schizophrenia_symptom.htm Title Schizophrenia Authors John M. Neale, Thomas F. Oltmanns Edition illustrated Publisher John Wiley & Sons, 1980 Original from the University of California Digitized Aug 24, 2010 ISBN 0471630861, 9780471630869 Length 554 pages http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia