Friday, May 31, 2019
Light and Darkness in The Scarlet garner Nathaniel Hawthorne, fountain of The Scarlet Letter, felt that the Puritans were people who believed that the world was a place where the battle between honourable and evil was a never-ending one. Throughout the novel, Hawthorne uses the symbols of light and pitiful to depict this battle among the characters Hester Prynne, drop curtain, and Roger Chillingworth. After Hester commits her sin, her beauty almost immediately vanishes into darkness. Her hair no long-term hangs freely about her face, instead she ties it up in a bonnet. Hester is non perceived as an evil person, but her sin makes her light hide outside. The fair weather is used as a descriptor of the goodness or pure nature of character. Because of her sin and the scarlet letter, Hester is no longer pure, therefore she is not seen in the sun. Hawthorne states, It was only the darkened house that could contain her. When sunshine came again, she was not there. While on a walk t o the forest, Pearl, Hesters daughter states, ...the sunshine does not love you. it runs away and hides itself, because it is afraid of something on your bosom. This is evidence that the scarlet letter itself whitethorn be the cause of Hesters darkness. Pearl is the character most recognized for her presence in the sun. She is move to the sun, as the sun is drawn to her. While at the governors house, Pearl notices how brightly the sun shines through the windows. She requests that, the sunshine be stripped off its front and effrontery to her to play with. Hester responds by saying, No my little Pearl. Thou moldiness gather thine feature sunshine. I have none to give thee Pearl has been seen as a character that always persists on knowing the truth. While in the forest Pearl wants to hear a story from Hester. She asks Hester if she has ever seen the Black humanness. Hester replies that she has seen the Black Man once before. This suggests that the Black Man may be her husband, Rog er Chillingworth. Roger Chillingworth is a character who is almost Satan-like. Chillingworth is described as the Black Man by Pearl and his own description of himself suggests that he is a fiend of some kind. When Chillingworth discovers that Dimmesdale was the return of Pearl, he taunts him and makes him feel more guilt than he already possesses.Free Essay on Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter - Light and Darkness Scarlet Letter essaysLight and Darkness in The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of The Scarlet Letter, felt that the Puritans were people who believed that the world was a place where the battle between good and evil was a never-ending one. Throughout the novel, Hawthorne uses the symbols of light and dark to depict this battle among the characters Hester Prynne, Pearl, and Roger Chillingworth. After Hester commits her sin, her beauty almost immediately vanishes into darkness. Her hair no longer hangs freely about her face, instead she ties it up in a bonnet. Hester is not perceived as an evil person, but her sin makes her light hide away. The sun is used as a descriptor of the goodness or pure nature of character. Because of her sin and the scarlet letter, Hester is no longer pure, therefore she is not seen in the sun. Hawthorne states, It was only the darkened house that could contain her. When sunshine came again, she was not there. While on a walk to the forest, Pearl, Hesters daughter states, ...the sunshine does not love you. it runs away and hides itself, because it is afraid of something on your bosom. This is evidence that the scarlet letter itself may be the cause of Hesters darkness. Pearl is the character most recognized for her presence in the sun. She is drawn to the sun, as the sun is drawn to her. While at the governors house, Pearl notices how brightly the sun shines through the windows. She requests that, the sunshine be stripped off its front and given to her to play with. Hester responds by saying, No my lit tle Pearl. Thou must gather thine own sunshine. I have none to give thee Pearl has been seen as a character that always persists on knowing the truth. While in the forest Pearl wants to hear a story from Hester. She asks Hester if she has ever seen the Black Man. Hester replies that she has seen the Black Man once before. This suggests that the Black Man may be her husband, Roger Chillingworth. Roger Chillingworth is a character who is almost Satan-like. Chillingworth is described as the Black Man by Pearl and his own description of himself suggests that he is a fiend of some kind. When Chillingworth discovers that Dimmesdale was the father of Pearl, he taunts him and makes him feel more guilt than he already possesses.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Does Clothing Have an Impact on Social InteractionsAn Observational Study in the ClassroomThere atomic number 18 many reasons why we choose to wear a particular article or style of clothing. Many of us consider our choice in clothing as an extension of our identity. While many others pick items from their wardrobe that reflect their current mood. There are also many times when we choose to trim a certain way in anticipation of being in a particular affable setting. Even people who dont count to bother with matching clothes or wearing a designer label or walk around wearing clothes that are divide and dirty, are making a statement. What remains to be examined is whether or not there is a clear affinity between the clothing we wear and our social interactions.The implications of such a relationship could lend itself to a variety of benefits. Imagine knowing that if you are clothesed a particular way you are more than(prenominal) likely to get better suffice in a restaurant. We already know that when showing up for a job interview, there is certain dress attire that will make you more likely to get the job. Why do you think that when youre single and going out, you tend to spend more time getting ready and dressed up? The answer is because we associate first impressions and attraction to our physical appearances. A variety of studies using empirical ratiocination in many different settings, have tried to establish a relationship between the two. Pamela Regan of California State University, Los Angeles was cited in the Washington Post as saying First, people need to dress appropriately if you want to be treated well, then dress the part, after she concluded an observational study of shoppers, the service they received and the way they were dressed. Published in the Psychological Reports, 2002 her study titled Customer Service As A Function of Shoppers Attire revealed that upon unveiling a store, it took more than 20 seconds longer for an employee to app roach a shopper dressed in gym clothes, as opposed to one dressed as if she were on her way to work. She concluded, Clothing, like other aspects of appearance, seems to exert at least some influence on how we are perceived and treated by others, (204). For our particular study, we w... ...larger concourse and perhaps in more diverse settings. It is clear that clothing does have an impact on social interactions however if I were to redo this study with a similar set-up I would also want to add a survey element to the treatment. Perhaps self-perceptions on dress have more of an impact on whether or not a student participates. This survey would examine how the student feels about their dress. It is possible that a student wearing $200 designer jeans and a shirt would consider themselves dressed up and participate more. However, because according to my own definitions this student would be dressed down it would hinder my results. Establishing a significant relationship between dress a nd participation in class could be useful to many people. Pamela Regans study has convinced me that if I want better service, I should dress up when I go shopping. If this study were to reveal a significant enough relationship, then students can reconsider how they dress for class as it may help their participation grade. ReferencesRegan, P. C., & Llamas V. (2002). Customer service as a function of shoppers attire. Psychological Reports, 90, 203-204.
The Greek victory against Persia was largely due to efforts of mainly capital of Greece exclusively also Sparta as well. capital of Greece was responsible for the major turning points of the Persian infringements, while Sparta was responsible for the deciding battle. Miltiades, with his skilful battle strategies, defeated the Persians during their second invasion at Marathon, which gave Athens a confidence boost on their military. During the third invasion, when the Athenians were evacuated to Salamis, Themistocles had devised a plan to trick the Persians which had resulted in Persian army without a contribute line. Sparta?s importance had revealed during their sacrifice at Thermopylae and at Plataea, where they provided the most effective part of the army.Athens was an important contributor to the Persian wars. Its tremendous maritime power along with their smart and innovative leaders, Miltiades and Themistocles, brought victory in situations which had thought to be impossible. An example of this is the battle at Marathon during the second invasion. The Athenians met the Persian?s large army among the hills, where their cavalry would ineffective, which was their strongest quality. Miltiades, informed by some Ionians that the Persian cavalry was absent, convinced Callimachus to strike. The battle had resulted in a win for Athens, without the help of Sparta and showed the transcendence of the Greek hoplites compared to their Persian counterparts. Miltiades, knowing that the Persian?s strongest troops were placed in the middle and absence of cavalry, devised a strategy to encircle their enemy by strengthening their wings. This strategy is what brought victory, and in turn, was a moral victory for the Athens and eradicated the impression that Persians were unbeatable. Th... ...he Persian army, which gave way for the Spartans to shine at Plataea. So without the Athenian ocean ships fighting, the war would have been lost as the Greek superior hoplites would have been outweighed by the incredible numbers of the Persians.The war against the Persians was won by both the efforts of Athens and Sparta, but the contribution made by Athens was much more important. The battles at Marathon and Salamis showed that Athens was not second place to Sparta and was capable of memory up their end of the battle. Sparta?s strength and honor as warriors was also an asset as it helped the battle at Plataea run smoothly for the Greeks. However, Athens efforts in the war were much more vital to the victory than Sparta as their victory at Salamis turn the whole war around, which only then gave a chance for Sparta to finally show their ability as fine warriors.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Shellys Frankenstein is regarded as the first modern horrornovel. It is in fact, a Gothic horror. The story came about mainlyfrom a dream shelly had. The dream was heavily influenced by herbackground and past personal experiences. These include her visits togalvanism experiments, a visit to the Rock of Franks a castle whichtranslated gives Frankenstein and her purlieu at the time,which where the Alps that made up the setting for some of the book.Other issues, which might have affected the outcome of the book, areher failed pregnancy, which could be linked to victors develop dieing.Events of the time had led to a near breakthrough to bring the dead tolife and the near full exploration of the Earth leaving only the polesunexplored. amorous and Gothic styles are used in the book theromantic style is the awe of nature a good example is the abruptsides of vast mountains were forwards me the icy wall of the glacieroverhung me and the Gothic style is the psychological thatencompasses th e very personal themes of life and death this is shownby how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite sedulousness I hadendeavoured to form.The Story begins with Waltons letters to his sister, he dialogue a lotabout his ambitions of mapping the arctic and finding a bloke whoshares his ruthless ambition. After awhile he finds Frankensteinfloating on a sheet of ice. After being nursed back to healthFrankenstein begins his story. Victor talks about his childhood, howhis mother died in childbirth, his younger brother Edward, and how hehas read books about philosophy and alchemy most of which have beenlong disproved. Then he continues about when he was at university andhis growing obsession with creating a being from the dead parts ofhumans also known as galvanism. Then he moves on to how he becomesobsessive and how it is only after he succeeds he realises what he hasdone and realises the implications of his dream. After being nurseback to health by his friend Henry Cherval Victor realises how badlyhe has treated his family and decides to return to his family, howeverbefore he can do this he receives a letter about his brother beingmurdered, the killer is presumed to be the family servant Justine andbecause Victor makes no mention of the monster she is hanged, victorsfarther also dies short after of a broken heart after losing William.Victor decides to travel to cope with his grief. It is at this pointthe monster appears and asks for a bride.
Outsiders in Their Eyes Were Watching God and Legal Alien In Pat Moras poem, Legal Alien, the author describes her biracial character as being viewed by Anglos as perhaps exotic, / perhaps inferior, definitely different, / viewed by Mexicans as alien, a description which highlights the situation encountered by people who strive to be prestigious individuals by floating between cultures and who consequently fail to be a portion of any particular group (Mora 9-11). Often the individuals are biologically trapped between two probable lives, and they forge ahead to meet the opportunity of peradventure belonging to the higher society while they degrade the small culture which has weaned them from birth. These people find themselves caught up in the universal ideals of achievement and prestige, and they protrude to find fault with themselves and their backgrounds they believe that their perception of themselves must be changed and improved. They must be a part of the group ho wever, conflict results from their selfish desires, and they are rejected by both organizations. Expressively evident in the novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, the conflict within certain racial groups often occurs when individuals of one race, blacks, strive to relate themselves to the level of another race, colours thus, the others left behind feel as if they have been betrayed while the whites gaze condescendingly on the black infiltrators. The ambitious individuals often watch a course of action involving the persecution of their own fellow brothers and the adoption of the features of their ideal, or higher, society. In trying to push herself to a level above the black folks, Mrs. Turner, a mulatto woman who is convinced of her superi... ...nt. By focusing on black society and showing the failure of an ambitious, white woman, she recognizes that a higher society is not inevitably better, as evidenced by the way Mrs. Turner attacks a weaker group of human being s. Mrs. Turner never comes remotely close to reaching the level of her white brothers, and she cuts her ties to her black neighbors so that she is lost and living without an identity. As Mrs. Turner insults the blacks, she claims that de higher de monkey climbs de mo he show his behind, and this quotation surely seems to describe her and her situation (Hurston 136). The consequences of her damaging behavior have caused her to become an American to Mexicans/ a Mexican to Americans and nothing to herself (Mora 14-15). Works CitedHurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York Perennial Library, 1990 ed.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
My father liked me, when I wasnt being an idiot. And he love me, too -- enough to spank the daylights out of me when I was being an idiot. -- Diana Gabaldon, Outlander there is a great difference between spanking a sister and abusing a tiddler. One is an act of love the early(a) is an act of hostility -- James Dobson, MDThere is a great deal of outrage from good deal who are reading stories about the misconduct of professional athletes and connecting them to a crusade against child abuse. Im against child abuse. Isnt everyone? However Im non against spanking. We have all encountered this situation A small child is standing in the middle of a department store throwing a complete temper tantrum demanding a toy. His mother, exasperated threatens him with time-outs and other deprived privileges, but the stubborn child continues to kick and scream. In the old days, a mother wouldnt think twice about marching the defiant child to the bathroom and giving him a good spanking to straigh ten him out, but these days, parents have to worry about someone screaming child abuse. Whether or not to spank a child has become a heated issue in todays society. Many authorities and psychologists believe that spanking breaks a childs spirit and besides leads to violence. They think that it causes the child to become depressed, angry or hostile and they have conducted many studies to prove these things. This type of harsh punishment occurs often, but it is called child abuse. There is a great difference between abusing a child and properly disciplining a child. One is an act of love the other is an act of hostility, and they are as different as night and day (Dobson 35). First of all, spanking does not lead to violence. Our surrounding world and media do. The average sixteen-year- old has watched 18,000 murders during his formative years, including a periodic bombardment of stabbings, shootings, hangings, decapitations, and general dismemberment (Meier 34). It seems unjust to b lame parents who are trying to raise their children properly for todays violence. If a child touches a hot stove he does not become a more violent person because of it, he just learns not to do it again because he learned a worth(predicate) lesson from the pain (Meier 34). Many anti spanking researchers have tried to conduct research studies to consolidate their beliefs against
Monday, May 27, 2019
dish antenna is an emotional element, a pleasure of ours, which n constantlytheless we regard as a quality of thing. The ideas of witness is found in almost every culture and at almost every while in human history, with many similarities. Beauty was and still is a term of great esteem linking human bes and nature with maneuveristic practices and drop deads since the early civilizations. From the early cultures, beauty, goodness and truth ar customarily re deeplyd. Beauty here carries a double meaning, inclusive and exclusive.In the inclusive sense, beauty pertains to anything worthy of approbation, to human virtues and characters, to nobility and goodness, to hidden things and truth, to the natural and divine worlds. In the exclusive, restricted sense, it pertains to how things appear, their manifestations, and to the joys human beings experience when presented with picturesque things, human bodies, graphicsistic productionifacts, natural creatures and things. When we talk astir(predicate) the beauty in works of art, we are talking about this latter(prenominal) beauty, and experiencing this beauty refers to the aesthetic experience.Such beauty is the higher degree of it and the experience of it last in us beyond the time and space. The nature of beauty and its mathematical function in philosophy and aesthetics was explained from the early periods and its evolution as described by the philosophers and writers as follows PLATO ( 428 or 427 348 or 347 B. C ) Plato had a love-hate relationship with the humanistic discipline. He essential have had some love for the arts, because he talks about them often, and his remarks show that he paid close attention to what he saw and heard.He was likewise a fine literary stylist and a great story-teller in fact he is said to have been a poet onwards he encountered Socrates and became a philosopher. Some of his dialogues are real literary masterpieces. On the otherwise hand, he found the arts threatening. He proposed sending the poets and playwrights out of his sublime Republic, or at least censoring what they wrote and he wanted music and painting severely censored. The arts, he feeling, are powerful shapers of character. and so, to train and protect ideal citizens for an ideal society, the arts must be strictly controlled.Plato had two theories of art. One may be found in his dialogue The Republic, and seems to be the theory that Plato himself believed. According to this theory, since art succeeds physical things, which in turn imitate the Forms, art is al elans a copy of a copy, and leads us correct further from truth and toward illusion. For this reason, as hearty as because of its power to stir the emotions, art is dangerous. Platos other theory is hinted at in his shorter dialogue Ion, and in his exquisitely crafted Symposium.According to this theory the artist, peradventure by divine inspiration, makes a better copy of the True than may be found in ordinary experience. gu m olibanum the artist is a tolerant of prophet. Here are some features of the two theories 1. Art is imitation This is a feature of both of Platos theories. Of course he was not the first or the last person to think that art imitates reality. The idea was still very strong in the Renaissance, when most people thought that a picture must be a picture of something, and that an artist is some star who can make a picture that looks just like the real thing.It wasnt until late in the nineteenth century that the idea of art as imitation began to fade from westward aesthetics, to be replaced by theories about art as expression, art as communication, art as pure form, art as whatever elicits an aesthetic chemical reaction, and a number of other theories. So art is imitation. But what does it imitate? In the Republic, Plato says that art imitates the objects and events of ordinary life. In other words, a work of art is a copy of a copy of a Form. It is even much of an illusion than is or dinary experience. On this theory, works of art are at best entertainment and at worst a dangerous delusion.Whereas in the Symposium, he talks of art as imitation of the divine beauty and ageless truth. 2. Art is powerful, and therefore dangerous Poetry, drama, music, painting, dance, all stir up our emotions. All of the arts move people power seriousy. They can strongly influence our behavior, and even our character. For that reason Plato insisted that music (especially music), along with poetry and drama and the other arts, should be part of the fostering of young citizens in his ideal republic, but should be strictly censored to present, at first, only the good.Platos influence came into the medieval European tradition through with(predicate) the filter of Neoplatonism, a much later modification of Platonic teachings that flourished in the centuries just before and after the time of Jesus. The most famous neo-Platonist was Plotinus. Plotinus and the other neo-Platonists do mu ch of the idea of Beauty, and the souls quest for it, as described in the Symposium. Through neoplatonism, Platos second theory (art as imitation of eternal Beauty and eternal Truth) became the channel of his influence on the western middle ages and the renaissance.ARISTOTLE ( 384-322 BC ) In The School of Athens, the fresco by Raphael, Plato and Aristotle stand side by side. Plato points to the heavens, to the ideal world of the Forms. Aristotle is shown with his hand open toward the earth. The painting shows how passionate Renaissance intellectuals were about the views and achievements of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It also accurately portrays the difference between Plato and Aristotle. Its a difference that shows up in their approaches to the arts. Aristotle took time and change more seriously than did Plato.Not surprisingly, he was also somewhat friendlier to the passions than was Plato though he, too, thought that the moral virtues were miscellaneous habits of rational cont rol over the passions. Like Plato, Aristotle thought that art involved imitation (mimesis), though on this point as on many others he was flexible and allowed for exceptions. He also thought harder than Plato about what art imitated. For example, he says that Tragedy is an imitation not of persons but of action and life, of happiness and misery (Poetics 1451b). Thus he leans toward the art as imitation of the ideal theory that Plato might have developed, but never did.Aristotles Poetics is largely devoted to drama, in crabby(prenominal) to tragedy. Aristotle provides both a history of the development of poetry and drama, and a critical framework for evaluating tragic drama. The Poetics is the first systematic essay in literary theory, full of insight, and showing a high degree of flexibility in the application of its general rules. Like many of Aristotles other attempts to systematize go to bedledge about an area, this framework has had a strong influence up to the present day, a nd was particularly influential during the Renaissance and the early modern European periods.Aristotle stresses the need for a work to be unified. The plot should be unified, portraying, in effect, whizz broad action which is set up, develops, and comes to a climactic conclusion. The character of the protagonists should be consistent, and the action should be the screen of action those characters would produce under those circumstances. The time of the action should also be unified, so that the plot can be held in memory as one action. Aristotle thought this would usually imply that the action would occur within one day.These Unities of action, character, and time were developed and added to by Renaissance writers to produce a code of decorum for dramatic productions, and failure to observe the Unities was often taken to mean failure of a work. Of course this brought a rebellion against Aristotle, who was not in fact amenable for the excesses of this code, and no doubt had no in tention of producing a set of rules for dramatists in the first place. His critical standards no longer rule the evaluation of plays and novels, let altogether other works.But the Poetics remains an impressive accomplishment, and many of its insights continue to ring true. It still seems a good general rule that a plot should be unified that in a drama character should be revealed by action that surprising turns are a great help to a plot, as long as they are not implausible that one should not try to cover too great a length of actual time within the time of the play. The idea of catharsis is a potent one and so is the idea that art portrays the universal, not a thing that has been, but a sympathetic of thing that might be. RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) He described the beauty and perfection of gods works and the divine light. As late as the 18th century, beauty retained its relation to divinity and perfection, expressed in art. Even so, with Descartes and his time a transformation of the world began that included alterations in the practice and sagaciousness of art and in the thought of beauty and beautiful things. In a universe made by god, the beauty and perfection of the world are immediate and infinitely important. GEORGE BERKELEY (1685-1753)A man needs no argument to make him discern and approve what is beautiful it strikes as first sight, and attracts without a reason. And as this beauty is found in shape and form of corporeal thins, so is there analogous to it, which is a beauty of another kind an order, a symmetry, and comeliness in the moral world. And as the eyes perceive, so do by a certain interior sense perceive the other, which sense, talent or faculty is ever quickest and purest in the noble mind. George Berkeley (1685-1753) is Irish philosopher and critics.He had moral sense theory of ethical judgment, which eliminates the traditional conception of moral rules as divine commands know by revelation as a main target of Berkeleys attack. Fran cis Hutcheson offered his account of the sense of beauty as an introduction to his theory of the moral sense, Berkeley extended his attack to Hutchesons aesthetics. He exclaimed his response to beauty need not always be a response to the appearance of usefulness e. g. Greek columns are tapered to look stable even though they would actually be stable with being tapered.The arguing issue raised remained a live one for aesthetics theory entities radical transformation in the post- Kantian period. IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804) Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German Enlightenment philosopher whose original and powerful philosophy has shaped most subsequent western thought. He was a popular lecturer, and was capable of a lively, readable style although his major works are as dense and difficult as they are influential. (Kant defended this as a deliberate choice, since he wanted to examine what could be known about the mind in itself, or a priori, without depending on particular examples.)Kant prod uced an early treatise on aesthetics, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1763), and did not write on the subject again until the end of his career, in the Critique of apprehension (1790). In between the two works came the development of his influential critical philosophy. Although Kant saw the Critique of Judgment as the key work which connected his books on epistemology (the theory of knowledge) in the Critique of Pure Reason with his writings on ethics in the Critique of Practical Reason, it is not necessary to know these other works in order to understand the most influential parts of Kants aesthetics.Like many other writers on aesthetics before him, Kants main interest was not in art per se, but in Beauty (and along with other eighteenth century writers, in the Sublime). Thus most of his remarks are as relevant to the beautiful or sublime in nature as in art. Like other Enlightenment writers, (e. g. , Hutcheson and Hume), Kant also thought that Beauty o r Sublimity were not really properties of objects, but ways in which we respond to objects.And like these other writers, Kant was concerned to show that this focus on the subjective aesthetic response did not make aesthetic value a mere function of individual or personal taste. Kants way of working out these problems is what makes his aesthetics original and influential. He claimed that judgments of taste are both subjective and universal. They are subjective because they are responses of pleasure, and do not fundamentally involve any claims about the properties of the object itself. (What field of studys is not the picture I see rather it is the pleasing effect of the picture on me.)On the other hand, aesthetic judgments are universal and not merely personal. Thats because in a crucial way they must be free-handed. When I am appreciating a painting aesthetically, I am not thinking about how much money its worth, or whether it is a portrait of a family member, or even about who pa inted it, except in so far as knowing the painter helps me see whats in the work. These non-aesthetic interests are extraneous to my detention of the painting. Rather I am pleased by the painting just for what it is, apart from anything I may get out of it.In fact I do not even take an ethical interest in the paintings subject (that is, any ethical interest is separate from this disinterested pleasure I take in the painting). Taste that requires an added element of tempt and emotion for its delight, not to speak of adopting this as the measure of its approval, has not emerged from barbarism. Kant thought that for aesthetic judgments to be both subjective and universal, they had to be about form.Beauty should be a question merely of the form. More specifically, the object being contemplated (e. g. , a work of art, or an actual landscape) must display a kind of undefined purposive ness, such that it seems to be organized with a utmost purpose in mind, although it is not possible to say what that purpose is. Thus a work of art, or a beautiful natural object, displays a kind of free play of forms, consistent with the presence of a purpose to which we dont have access. So intent was Kant on emphasizing the formal properties of the objects of aesthetic attention that he was unwilling to include color among the aesthetically relevant properties of an object.Color, in his view, is mere decoration design and composition are what really matter . To sum up this point about form in Kants own words A judgment of taste which is uninfluenced by charm or emotion (though these may be associated with the delight in the beautiful), and whose determining ground, therefore, is simply finality of form, is a pure judgment of taste. Kant divided the kinds of aesthetic response into responses to the Beautiful and the Sublime. The one represents a pleasure in order, harmony, delicacy and the like. The other is a response of awe before the infinite or the overwhelming.While the beau tiful presents the appearance of form, the sublime may often seem formless. The pleasure it gives us derives from our awareness that there is something in us that transcends the overwhelming power or eternity outside us. Finally, Kant had things to say about genius. In short, he thought that genius has its own rules, and one cannot dictate to it. How Kant arrived at his conclusions is not easily shown and it is no wonder that the philosophical reasoning that grounds those conclusions did not follow them into the cultural mainstream.But the conclusions themselves proved quite influential. His remarks on genius, and on purposive ness in art and nature, had an impact on the development of Romantic aesthetics. Later, the idea of a disinterested appreciation of form became a watchword for philosophers and critics like Clement Greenberg who defended abstract art. In literary criticism, the New Criticism which focused on the text itself, and its philosophical defense by Beardsley and Wim satt, were similarly inspired.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Case Brief I Hamer v Sidway Without a complete and detailed background, Hamer v Sidway tortuous an uncle promising his nephew a lump sum of coin if the nephew could refrain from drinking alcohol, smoking, swearing, and gambling until his 21st birthday. The nephew fulfilled his end of the promise, and the uncle acknowledged that the nephew had rightfully earned the money but asked if he could hold the money in the bank until the nephew was responsible enough to care for it.The uncle died however, and Hamer, the party with legal claim to the money was denied payment by the executor of the will, Sidway. Sidway argued that the $5000 was without consideration because the nephew had benefited from the actions he undertook to receive the award. There were two specific legal questions that were brought before the court. One being whether or not the nephew and uncle officially and legally hold upon this promise, and the second being the careful examination of the definition of considerati on in regards to a contract.Under investigation the court did find that the contract was binding on a certain date between the two related parties. The findings in relevance to consideration are explained below in correlation with the ruling. Originally Hamer, the plaintiff, recovered at trial, but the judgment was reversed upon appeal by Sidway. When Hamer appealed to the Court of Appeals of New York, he, the plaintiff, eventually won the suit after careful review. The courts cerebrate for the decision was based upon the examination of consideration.Sidway had denied payment on the account that the nephew had benefited from the actions taken, regardless of his uncles proposal, and that the promisor, his uncle, was not benefited in any way. The court however was less come to with whether the promisee happened to benefit from the proposal, but more concerned with how the nephew had given up his legal rights to drink alcohol, smoke tobacco, swear, and gamble in accordance with the c ontract.They ruled that, consideration promoter not so much that one party is profiting as that the other abandons some legal right to the present, or limits his legal freedom of action in the future, as an inducement for the promise of the first. It was confirmed that the nephew did give up these legal rights, and fully performed the conditions imposed. As mentioned above, the court ruled in favor of the plaintiff, Hamer, on behalf of the nephew.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Development refers to growth, adaptation and change that occur over the course of a lifetime (Papalia, et. al, 2007). The human being is never static, from conception to death, physical and mental change is constantly taking place in all of us. The process of development has been thought of in terms of tiers that each of us must go through. These stages are characterized by certain behavioral or developmental characteristics that each of us goes through at distinct rates and even at variant ages.Among the stages of development, no other aspect of the life cycle has commanded as much attention as adolescence. Adolescence can easily be described as the topper of times and the worst of times. This stage is affected by the structure of the society in which the individual is raised. Hence, different cultures may collect different conceptions of adolescence. Many cultures have rites of passage when the child enters adolescence or adulthood.While in Western cultures, it is a gradual tr ansition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescence is marked by changes in the physical, emotional, social and cognitive aspects of the individual. The fast physical changes occur at the onset of puberty during adolescence the bodily changes often occur at a slower rate. In this stage, due to increased legal action of the gonads at puberty, sex glands develop rapidly and become functional, the sex organs mature and the major secondary sex characteristics are more defined.The skeleton gelt growing, hence the insipid reaches his/her mature height in this stage and the various parts of the body gradually come into proportion (Steinberg, 2002). The physical changes that teenageds experience causes their preoccupancy with their physical appearance and of what may be considered as normal Developmental Stages Page 2 development. Few adolescents are content with their bodies, and this discontent can lead to lowered self-esteems and insecurity. Moreover, adolescence discovers their sex uality in this stage and tends to act on it.Adolescents also experience heightened emotional tensions, which may result from the hormonal and physical changes they are passing game through, it can also be brought about by the social pressures they must face and of which they have non been prepared. Adolescents experience emotional instability from time to time, which results from their adjustments to changes in their lives. Like when they are see reded by the thought that they are being treated like a child or treated unfairly. However, they express their anger by sulking, refusing to speak our loudly criticizing those who angered them.While adolescent emotions are often intense, uncontrolled and seemingly irrational, it improves with age (Geselle, et. al, 1956). Adolescents emotions also impact the federal agency they relate with other people and how they view their social sphere. Adolescents thought patterns are generally egocentric. Elkind (1967) proposed that adolescents ass ume that everyone else in the world views the world as they do. Adolescent egocentrism has two facets, the personal fable and the imaginary audience. The personal fable is a romanticized self-generated story of ones personal destiny.Like when the adolescent believes that shoplifting is bad and there is a possibility of being caught by the police, but feels that it will not happen to him/her. The imaginary audience refers to the adolescents belief that other people are scrutinizing him/her because he/she is the most important concern of other people. The concept of the imaginary audience may help rationalize why students are not comfortable in giving reports or presentations in class, as they believe that they are under scrutiny when they do so.This perception is very real for the adolescent and may impair his/her Developmental Stages Page 3 learning in the classroom. Teachers can help by being bleak to this issue and thus provide encouragement and positive feedback on improvement s made by students, or to assign presentations in groups of two, where the team presents it to the class to diffuse the whimsey of being scrutinized. According to Piaget (1972) by the time a person reaches adolescence, he/she begins the final phase of intellectual development, which is called formal operation.This stage is characterized by the ability to crystallize abstract problems. The formal operational thinker is not bound by content and available experience, rather he/she can hypothesize and deal with the what ifs. The adolescent therefore is able to think of concepts and ideas well beyond his/her knowledge and experience, to look for answers in a systematic way and to use logical reasoning. Considering the cognitive stage of adolescents, teachers can challenge students to think beyond the common and simple responses to questions put to them.The teacher can also encourage students to make use of their cognitive skills by analyzing, predicting, justifying, and defending their ideas in class. The teacher however, has to recognize that students conception of their ideas and abstract thoughts are products of their social and cultural backgrounds, thus students may give different explanations to a particular question or hypothesis. Like when students are asked to analyze the reasons why societies celebrate events, the teacher must allow for other cultural celebrations and not limit it to American celebrations.ReferencesElkind, D. (1967). Egocentrism and Adolescence Child Development, 38, 1025-1034Gesell, A., Ilg, F., & Ames, L. (1956). Youth The years from ten to sixteen. New York Harperand RowPapalia, D., Olds, S., & Feldman, R. (2007). Human Development, 10th ed. McGraw HillPiaget, J. (1972). Intellectual growth from adolescence to adulthood. Human Development 151-12.Steinberg, L. (2002). Adolescence 6th ed. McGraw Hill
Thursday, May 23, 2019
FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT (PART A) LEGO Group Marketing and Operations Management Report Prep bed For LEGO Group By Eva Gaal On 17 nary(prenominal)ember 2008 Introduction At the request of the LEGO Company, this report advises the company on the expansion of its operation based on commercialize discussion sectionation, appropriate merchandiseing mix, modern produce design and evolution, including total feature management for bysourcing virgin partners. LEGO Group is the fifth-largest chat up manufacturer of the world and has operated successfully for 75 years however, it has had about problems in the conciliate couple of years.To authorise these problems, LEGO introduced a seven-year strategy plan, which consists of some fundamental changes regarding to the puzzle outes, procedures and structure of the company. This strategy so far has been executed successfully as shown in the pecuniary gives however, LEGO is going to face some more ch on the wholeenges in the futu re. (LEGO Annual Report 2007, 2007). 1. / Market segmentation Market segmentation is defined as the subdividing of a market into distinct and progressively homogeneous subgroups of customers (FM-A, 2004, p. 3) and it centres on the assumption that customers demonstrate heterogeneity in their crossing preferences and buying behaviour. (Green, 1977, Wind, 1978, cited in Dibb, 1998, p. 394). The business did actively segment its market (Dibb, 1998, p. 399), as LEGO identified itself from the very beginnings as a toy manufacturer it therefore automatically determined its merchandising segmentation approach. In the childrens toy market the primary segmentation base is the age (the older the more complex product) however, the real buyers are the parents (e. g. LEGO Duplo). Such an approach is popular because it is convenient, clear-out, easy to put through and stable anywhere time. (Curran and Goodfellow, 1989, p. 23, cited in Dibb, 1998, p. 399). During the company operation LEGO identified more and more secondary segmentation variables (FM-A, 2004) such as gender (dollhouse for girls LEGO Belville and robots, football stars for boys LEGO Sports, LEGO Racers), geographical area level of income and purchasing power (matured countries more complex products like Technic, Bionicle, readying countries simple products like Duplo, Creative Building) knowledge ( incompatible product rages for classroom education and for child development at home) psychographic, lifestyle reflects the parents believe in the importance of education and creativity of the LEGO products LEGO related its products posely to this segmentation group and positioned them in the indisputable markets. Why is market segmentation important? Identification of market segments, physical product configurations and brand positioning (LEGO positioned itself as a premium brand) are the most(prenominal) important decisions that companies face in the global marketplace. (Hassan et al. , 2003). LEGO identified country-wide segments and tar scotched them with its products redact, based around the importance of education and creativity. Universal segments across country boundaries are considered as micro factors for values, attitudes, lifestyle and perception. (Hassan et al. , 2003). Even if market segments can be identified as LEGO did, it does not necessarily mean they are attractive or that a worthy marketing mix can be designed for each segment. This can be one reason why LEGO had difficulties in early 2000, however, there is a lack of quantifiable evidence about the impact of segmentation on business performance. Dibb, 1998, p. 396). The other reason could be that despite the well put down benefits which segmentation offers, businesses continue to encounter implementation difficulties. (Dibb, 1998) Marketers are using intuition rather than systematic analysis to identify segments (Wind and Cardoza, 1974, cited in Dibb, 1998) follow their competitors (LEGO started to create proud technical schoolnology toys) with the lack of critical analyses about their attractiveness to the business. By recommendation it is that LEGO should review its segmentation approach including identification of segment profitability and life cycles (see Appendix 1. exhibition of segments data global buyer based vs country based features etc. to identify raw market opportunities and niches. Although there is a lack of quantitative search on the question of segmentation success factor, there are guide distinctions that divide 3 part (before during after) segmentation process, Kotlers check-list and attractiveness criteria (Abratt,1993, cited in Dibb, 1998), (see Appendix 2. ). The result of this analysis should then be applied in the development of the existing segments (e. g. argeting older age-groups 20+, enter into new markets e. g. in Asia or identify new segments) to make decisions about targeting and to determine positioning. (Dibb, 1998). 2. / Marketing Mix After the market has been successfully segmented, target segment selected, and positioning strategies created, the marketer needs to proceed with development of the marketing mix. (Goldsmith, 1999, p. 181). The marketing plan consists of the eight main elements below which are the major areas to achieve and expand the sales and profit goals (see Appendix 3. ).Some of them are unique for Technic products (like product & price) exclusively some of them cannot be separated as they are associated to the brand (cost-effectiveness). Product LEGOs vision is that the Group will increasingly refine and improve its product range to enable its new product range to compete (LEGO Annual Report 2007, 2007), for example with the many electronic toys on the market, other companies are determined to pip buyers. Therefore in the 1970s LEGO started to launch the Expert Builder sets, which included parts like gears, axles and cogs, which could be employ to shape working models of vehicles and mach ines (e. . cars, trucks, tractor etc. ). These products were more advanced, therefore more suitable for teenagers (12+). They were designed to help children learn creatively through play and to improve abilities to solve complex problems. In the 1980s the Expert Builder serial publication was renamed to the Technic series. (Regani and George, 2007). By the early 1990s high-tech toys appeared in the market from other companies. Therefore the LEGO Technic series had to be improved to build robots and other automated or interactive systems to keep up with its competitors. PriceLEGOs unique position is based on the high fibre, durability and safety of its products, utilizing a premium branding strategy where a higher price is associated, which therefore differentiates LEGO in relation to its competitors within the veritable market. The Technic products consist of more complex and special elements, therefore the production cost is higher than the standard bricks. Customers are prepared to pay this higher price to get the added benefits of the special design product of LEGO. However, this higher price (? 60-? 120) completely fits into the LEGO products price range (? 20-? 200). rear LEGO uses the following channels to tolerate their products (including LEGO Technic products) to customers (LEGO Annual Report 2007, 2007) scattering two centres in North America, two centres in Europe direct sale brand stores, mail order business, online sales (e. g. Amazon) Promotion The LEGO brand is the 6th most well known brand in the world (HVG, 2004) and this gives competitive advantage against the competitors in the promotion activity. LEGO is using to promote the Technic products through advertising during TV children programs (e. g. Off Roader) and through sales promotion (e. g. pecial online offers, Technic Gallery). Increasingly, online reviews written by satisfied customers are used to promote their products. Other possibility to promote Technic products would be to b uild one of them in the brand store to demonstrate how it works. People Not only in the production have LEGO maintained a high superior, but also in the performance of the service for customers. By TECHNIC products is very important that appropriate training for employees is given due to the complexity of the products. Processes Lego products have to satisfy all market standards regardless where they were manufactured. (Regani and George, 2007, p. 6). It also has to provide high quality technical support especially such a complex product as Technic and customer service. LEGO customer service was thus awarded the prize for Best Centre for Customer Service in Europe. (LEGO Annual Report 2007, 2007, p. 19). Physical evidence The high quality production of the LEGO product (ISO 14001) guarantees that the Technic toys can be easily assembled following the technical instructions and there are no missing parts and all elements fit perfectly well together. The assembled toy looks and work s exactly as shown on the packaging.Personalisation As the newest element of the marketing mix, personalisation offers a personalised version of the brand. This has a direct impact on all other elements relevant to LEGO products. Customers who are unhappy with mass produced products can design their own individual TECHNIC product on the lucre and order this more personalised version online. However, personalised products may imply personalised prices. (Goldsmith, 1999, p181. ). 3. / New product design development It may be easier to develop a personal version of an existing product than to develop a wholly new product.New products come in five versions product improvements, line extensions, brand extensions, new brands, and new-to-the-world innovations. (Peter and Donnelly, 1997, p. 125, cited in Goldsmith, 1999). From the very beginning LEGO shows a high commitment to new products innovation. When LEGO created the first non-toxic (ABS) interlocking plastic bricks in six different colours and launched their little yellow minifigure these were new innovations and built a base of their success as LEGO was named Products of the Century by Fortune magazine.The LEGO elements which have been manufactured since 1958 are fully compatible, therefore LEGO sets can be passed on from one generation to the next. (Regani and George, 2007). As childrens interests changed over the years LEGO had to design new high tech product ranges to keep up with the present technology. The product development takes place primarily at the companys Billund headquarter (internal brainstorming), but the LEGO Group has bases all over the world to monitor the latest trends, review of competitors products and also monitor the customers requirements and feedback. LEGO Company compose, 2007). Innovation and creativity can be expensive and LEGO has lots of primary limitations of its product design therefore each design option must be evaluated and assessed against a set of design criteria. (FM-A, 2004). The new products have to comply with the existing ones. The new product has to fit to the production line, because to adjust or create a new production process has a high additional cost. LEGO Groups motto Only the best is good enough and to fulfil this ambition all products have to comply with the appropriate safety and quality standards.Several activities such as quality management, environmental (green) issues, preventive action and testing on mechanical, chemical, electrical properties to ensure the product is free from hazards. Along with the high tech and authorize products LEGO should and indeed must concentrate on the development of its classic product lines (e. g. variety of product line extensions which are fit with the existing ones and wide range of possibilities of packaging (smaller supplementary parts are relatively cheaper for customers than bigger packs, etc. ). 4. / Total quality management for new outsourcing partners It has a lot of elements therefore gravid to find the right definition of TQM. There are some interpretations which concentrate on different aspects (FM-A, 2004) like participation and quality circles (IshiKawa), quality cost, employee participation and need (Crosby), internal and external focus of customers, fitness for use (Juran) and Six Sigma (see Appendix 4. ). One of the overall definitions of TQM is n effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organisation so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which chuck up the sponge full customer satisfaction. (Feigenbaum,1986, cited in FM-A, 2004, p. 380). As definitions are wide and different in the practice the TQM is different company by company, however we could find some basic statements. LEGO is a good example of TQM as quality is the core of LEGOs activity. Quality is firmly rooted in our fundamental beliefs, or foreign mission statement, or strategy goals, and our values.As a world leader in the field of quality experience, service, and products, we focus on the customers perception of quality. (Regani and George, 2007, p. 6). In reflects of competitiveness and being cost-effective, it was a strategic decision to outsource its large production to Flextronics. However, outsourcing includes risks can the quality and the time-management (JIT) be assured? What are the crucial factors of the LEGOs successful TQM which they should absolutely recommend to their outsourcing partners? Participation commitment at all levels Both parties have to participate to successful quality management. Senior and middle managers Should neutralize Should consider autocracy support individualism team building (team spirit) restrict behaviour training Employees Employees involvement improves morale. (FM-A, 2004). We view the implementation of this policy as the dual-lane responsibility of all LEGO employees. (Regani and George, 200 7, p. 6). Culture Adopt a quality-conscious philosophy as LEGOs motto The best is good enough Organizational culture, LEGO established e. g. a department for Corporate Quality Control Training Institute training on the job self-improvement to be proud of their jobs. (FM-A, 2004). LEGO implemented a new competence model which defines the eight most important competences for LEGO employees and regularly asking their workers about their opinion of the process. Continuous improvement Quality management is the continual interrogation and improvement of xisting processes. (FM-A, 2004, p. 382). Not enough to introduce but also need to open the continuous improvement. As LEGO meets the highest quality standards they independently show how changeable the market is. LEGO takes care to stay up-to-date in the safety requirements (EU CE, ISO). Monitoring (including preventive activities) LEGO quality management aim to prevent defective production (18 out of every million elements are defected) therefore have to assure quality in the production process internally and externally (quality assurance), rather than inspecting goods after they have been produced. FM-A, 2004). Although the high quality production which avoids defaults LEGO carries out regular inspections of production. What can LEGO provide the company they outsourced to with? Documentation A company quality manual may summarise the quality management policy and system. A procedures manual sets out the functions, structures and responsible for quality in each department. Detailed work instructions and specifications for how work should be carried out show how to achieve the desired quality standards. Training Integrated relationship (training in LEGOs place) Knowledge sharing train the trainer program (LEGO provide trainers) Monitoring LEGO can delegate people from its monitoring team. Summary and conclusions Following the seven-year-strategy plan in the last couple of years, LEGOs situation has already stabilized. The tho expansion of the operation is possible. LEGO needs to rethink their attractiveness of the market segments and approach them to identify new market opportunities and niches.By actively using the appropriate elements of marketing mix (not only the classical 4Ps) and thinking about the product design possibilities they should also consider the existing competitive advantages of their product and the cost of fitting to the process involved. In case of outsourcing as a cost-saving LEGO needs to support its partners to keep up the quality as LEGOs core value. REFERENCES Abratt, R. (1993) Market segmentation practices of industrial marketers. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 22, pp. 79-84. Cited in Dibb S. (1998) Market segmentation strategies for success.Marketing comprehension & Planning, 16/7, 1998, pp. 394 406. Curran, J. G. M. and Goodfellow, J. H. (1989), Theoretical and practical issues in the determination of market boundaries. European journal of Marketing, Vol. 24 No. 1, pp. 16-28. Cited in Dibb S. (1998) Market segmentation strategies for success. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16/7, 1998, pp. 394 406. Dibb S. (1998) Market Segmentation Strategies for Success. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16/7, 1998, pp. 394 406. Goldsmith, R. E. (1999) The Personalised marketplace Beyond the 4Ps.Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 17/4, 1999, pp. 178 185. Green, P. E. (1977) A new approach to market segmentation. Business Horizons, Vol. 20, February, pp. 61-73. Cited in Dibb S. (1998) Market segmentation strategies for success. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16/7, 1998, pp. 394 406. Hassan, S. S. ,Craft, S. , Kortam, W. (2003) Understanding the new bases for global market segmentation. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 5 2003, pp. 446-462. HVG (2004) Bajban a LEGO Mar nem jatek Online. Retrieved from http//hvg. hu/200403HVGFriss77_U. spx Accessed 20 October 2008. Kotler, P. (1994) Marketing Management Analysi s, Planning, murder and Control. (8th ed. ) Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Cited in Oxford Institute of International pay (2004) Foundations of Management Part A. London BPP Professional Education. LEGO (2007) Annual Report 2007 LEGO Group Online. Retrieved from http//cache. lego. com/downloads/aboutus/annualreport2007UK. pdf Accessed 19 October 2008. LEGO (2007) Company Profile An Introduction to the LEGO Group 2007 Online. Retrieved from http//cache. lego. om/downloads/aboutus/LEGO_company_profile_UK. pdf Accessed 19 October 2008. Oxford Institute of International Finance (2004) Foundation of Management Part A. London BBP Professional Education. Peter, J. P. and Donnelly, J. H. Jr (1997), A Preference to Marketing Management, seventh ed. , Irwin, Burr Ridge, IL. Cited in Goldsmith, R. E. (1999) The Personalised Marketplace Beyond the 4Ps. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 17/4, 1999, pp. 178 185. Porter, M. (1985) Competitive Advantage. New York Free Press. Cited in Oxford In stitute of International Finance (2004) Foundation of ManagementPart A. London BBP Professional Education. Regani, S. and George, S. S. (2007) Quality and Safety Practices at LEGO, ICFAI Centre for Management Research (ECCH), Case Study Reference no 607-015-2007. Wind, Y. and Cardoza, R. (1974) Industrial market segmentation. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 153-66. Cited in Dibb S. (1998) Market segmentation strategies for success. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16/7, 1998, pp. 394 406. Wind, Y. (1978) Issue and Advantages in Segmentation Research. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 153-66. Cited in Dibb S. 1998) Market segmentation strategies for success. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16/7, 1998, pp. 394 406. BIBLIOGRAPHY Economist (2008) Toy story What European toys say about Europian views Online. Retrieved from http//www. economist. com/world/europe/displaystory. cfm? story_id=10607422 Accessed 20 October 2008. Gronroos, C. (1994) From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing Towards a Paradigm Shift in Marketing. Management Decision, Vol. 32, No. 2. , 1994, pp. 4-20. Harari, O. (1997) Ten Reasons TQM Doesnt Work. American Management Association, January 1997.HVG (2006) Atalakuloban a LEGO-vilag Osszerakos jatszmak Online. Retrieved from http//hvg. hu/200616HVGFriss1515107. aspx Accessed 20 October 2008. HVG (2007) Megis kell a kreativitas? Tuljutott a valsagon a LEGO Online. Retrieved from http//hvg. hu/20071118_lego_hagyomanyos_eptoelem_sikeres_uzlet. aspx Accessed 24 September 2008. HVG (2008) Bucsu a Flextronicstol A LEGO maga gyart jatekot Magyarorszagon es Mexikoban Online. Retrieved from http//hvg. hu/20080701_lego_flextronics_nyiregyhaza_mexiko. aspx Accessed 24 September 2008. LEGO (2008) Product Quality & Safety Online.Retrieved from http//www. lego. com/eng/info/default. asp? page=safety Accessed 20 October 2008. Vas Nepe (2008) Ez mar korantsem jatek Online. Retrieved from http//www. vasnepe. hu/gazdas ag/20080703_ez_mar_korantsem__jatek Accessed 23 September 2008. Wood, L. (2000) Brands and brand right definition and management. Management Decision, 38/9, 2000, pp. 662-669. Yong, J. and Wilkinson, A. (2001) Rethinking Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2001, pp. 247-258. Appendix 1. pic Appendix 2. Kotlers check-list segments should beAbratt (1993) attractiveness criteria ability to reach buyers Appendix 3. The marketing mix Appendix 4. Six Sigma pic Segment profitability and life cycle Turnover Year 1970 1990 1958 2008 LEGO Brick LEGO Technic LEGO Star Wars Substantial Accessible mensural Stable Actionable Expected market growth Competitive position Market size Market fit with organisational objectives and resources Personalisation Product Price People Processes Place Physical evidence Promotion The Marketing Plan Defect reduction Yield improvement Customer delight Profitability improvement
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Quixotism is the ability of being caught up in the fable of pursuing both(prenominal) unrealistic goals or deeds. It is a world which is commonly used to describe noble-mindedness with reveal looking at the practical side of the act. It is t herefore related to over- idealism, something which does not contemplate the consequences or outcome of what somebody is doing. An act of impetuous person can be described as quixotic. This can be broadly speaking described as the ability to maintain whizs ideals despite evidence to the contrary. The title character of wear thin Quixote is a great example of the concept of Quixotism. The prominent questions here argon whether Don Quixote is sane or if his mind dried up and went completely out of his mind (2227). The truth is that Cervantes uses the sub-themes of an insane knight, idealism, and devotion to depict another(prenominal) major themes which be complex.That is why the characters exhibit incidents which are surfeit and unforgettab le, happenings which are comic and tragic, but tries to present this in a significant gayner. This character is genuinely ment altogethery sound and he is a character who was built by the actor, as a way of portraying the Spanish society in the era of sixteenth century. The text is full of quaint humor, and the author uses this in advancing his plot and the themes, which on the other hand comes out from Don Quixote. Don Quixote depicts metempsychosis in reality and tries to satirize the middle ages chivalric traditions by depicting them as absurd and archaic.This is a noble Spaniard who is being presented as crazy by the author intentionally, and he picks up his role as a good character and actor. He tries to revive the glamour of knighthood which was there for the protection of damsels, the aid of windows and orphans, and the succoring of the poverty-stricken (2262) and it is evident that Cervantes does not care about the impossible dreams. The character refuses to face reali ty and the facts of life though he knows that what he ventures into is unrealistic and unachievable.As presently as he had seen the windmills, Don Quixote said to his squire fortune is guiding our affairs better than we could have wished for you see there before you () some 30 or more lawless giants with whom I mean to battle (2247). Additionally, his relatives try to take the chivalric romances away as a way of rescuing him because they think that was all that drove him mad. On the contrary, he opts to escape with Sancho Panza whom is believed to be a good deal saner though little learned.The two characters venture into funny dreams but are different in character. According to Don Quixote knights should not complain of any pain because they are meant to bear wounds even when their bowels may be dropping out (2249). On the other hand, Sancho belives that he has to complain about any minor pain as God knows it, unless the same rule applies to squires as well (2249). For Don Quixote life is like a theater and ein truthone is playing a part in it. Even that life is serious always emotions are playing a big part. Don Quixotes imagination allowed him to create a vision of a world which was more colorful, exciting, adventurous and poetic.It was for him a way to live a life because as he said when life is done, death takes from each the garb that differentiates him, and all at last are equal in the strike (2307). He was a man who refused to be unhappy. The average life just got too monotonous for him, but instead of suffering, he did what most people are not brave enough to do. He reinvented his life to make it something that he was joyful living, no matter how crazy it seemed to others, because the greatest madness that a man can be guilty of in this life is to die without good reason (2348).He had always wanted to be a knight and one twenty-four hour period he became one. He possessed the courage to follow his dreams, regardless of the judgment of others.The co ncept of Quixotism has been very well revealed in the text because Don Quixote knows very well who he is, the age he lives in, and he wants to revive the knight- errantry to be an righter of wrongs, avenger of injustices, protector of damsels, terror of giants, and champion of battles (2293). He wants to remain firm on his ideas and believes despite the facts from the parallel side which he knows well. From his quote I know who I am, and who I may be, if I choose (2244), he explains the fact that he is very sane and he knows what he is doing. His insanity is known to him and very intentional just like the character Hamlet in Shakespeares work.The author was being creative and exploring on the themes of idealism, which is best seen from Don Quixote character who is a flower of chivalry (2296). He is therefore being quixotic, and Cervantes asks us do we consider the practicality of the goals we venture into? It is a good text with lessons on the pursuit of unrealistic goals in life. W e should not have condescending attitudes towards nonconformists or judge other people, because one mans genius is another mans insanity, just as one mans giant is another mans windmill.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Nathan the Wise is a call for reexamination among those who consider themselves as having the monopoly on truth while the rest of the world be supposedly financial backing their lives based on false creeds. The misunderstanding among peoples or nations is rooted in this perception. Gotthold Lessings play sought to highlight the innate prejudices of his characters religious affiliations and subsequently provided a pithy reminder in the form of an irony. Ah Indeed you do not know how closer I shall cling to you henceforth. We must, we will be friends. Despise my nation. We did not choose a nation for ourselves.Are we our nations? Whats a nation then? Were Jews and Christians such, eer they were men? And have I found in thee one more, to whom It is enough to be a man? (Lessing) This was Nathans response to The Templar on the latters perception of Jews. The irony is on the second to the closing curtain sentence which implores humanity to be humane or kind to others regardless of what one believed in. Lessing is contrasting people living their lives based on religions and men who are humane kind to their fellowmen. The irony is in our supposition that our beliefs save us, guide our conduct, and teach us to be human.Yet the same precepts tend to make us biased and often cruel to those outside our fold. Indeed everyone is certain that his belief is the truth among many lies. Sometimes its this self-righteousness that makes us unjust. A paradox as pointed out by Lessing. It is ironic that a play written more than two centuries still holds true today. IRONY IN TARTUFFE Moliere parodied religionism through his play, Tartuffe. Moliere created a very witty play of witless characters-with the exception of the servant girl, Dorine and Cleante. The irreverence of the play could explain outdoor(a) its banning during its time.Hypocrisy is personified by Tartuffe as fanaticism is personified by Orgon. There are gems of literary passages in the play that demonstrate irony. O ne particular instance was the interjection of Dorine to Orgon who was convincing his surprised mother or so Tartuffes masquerade. This passage in Act V, Scene V is worth considering You are quite wrong, you have no right to blame him This action unaccompanied proves his good intentions. Love for his neighbour makes his virtue perfect And knowing money is a root of evil, In Christian charity, hed take awayWhatever things may hinder your salvation. Orgon and his family are about to be evicted from their own home by the unscrupulous Tartuffe when this particular dialogue was uttered. He was already at a loss of how Tartuffe could have done this to him. The irrepressible Dorine could not resist jabbing him verbally. To be deprived of ones property is to be given the chance to be eternally saved since the thing that causes sin is taken away from you. The person robbing you then is in fact doing you a favor and the looting itself is a result of good intentions.This may be a tongue-in -cheek line but the irony is apparent in the situation where the quest for religiosity has led almost to Orgons total material depravity. IRONY IN THE PRINCESS OF CLEVES If any other motives than honour and virtue were necessary to induce you to persist in that character you have hitherto worthily sustained I would tell you, that a reverse of conduct will disturb my happiness in a better world. But should (which Heaven forbid ) this heavy misfortune be inevitable, I shall welcome death with joy, since it prevents my being witness to your disgrace (Lafayette). These last oral communication in the deathbed of Madame de Chartres were part of a warning to her daughter of the pitfalls of falling in love while married. Rather than prevent the Princess of Cleves falling in love, it further arouses in her the need to experience what is romantic and for her which obviously she has not found from the Prince of Cleves. Aside from this irony of a warning prodding one to fall into the pit of i nterdict love, Madame de Chartres or Madame Lafayette treated us with verbal irony in the last two sentences. She indicated that if the Princess will stray from the marriage path, she will be unhappy.Still she added she aptitude be happy in death since it will prevent her from witnessing that which would bring disgrace to her daughter. This strong admonition is quite consistent with how society looks upon extramarital dalliances. The Princess was just guilty of mental infidelity. Ironically, it was not only her who suffered but her mother, who died of a broken heart, perhaps from a daughter who ignored her husband, who died of jealousy the Duc Nemours who suffered emotionally and finally the Princess herself who entered a convent.The deathbed warning is ironically not helping the Princess. It destroyed everybody. Bibliography Lessing, G. E. (n. d. ). Nathan the Wise. Retrieved March 14, 2009, from PDF Books www. pdfbooks. co. za Moliere, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin. The Project Gutenbe rg EBook Tartuffe. Project Gutenberg, October 26, 2008 (Posting Date). Lafayette, M. The Princess of Cleves. London J. WILKIE, No. 71, St. PAULS.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Art is very important in our lives. It constitutes one of the oldest form and most important federal agency of expression developed by man. It is a language, which is charged with feelings and significance that has sprung up among men living together. For this, I am very glad to experience the beauty of arts, to meet arts within my body and soul. The t severally of the arts is intended to hasten us students realize that the mere possession of knowledge is useless unless erect to useful ends.Moreover, we would become aw be that knowledge alone is meaningless unless it is accompanied by values, sentiments, priorities, insights, inter-relationships and other a priori realities not subject to empirical proofs also form part of the persons education. In the humanities, we, students are exposed to these, thus, the development of the whole person, which is the goal of humanities. The humanities are the stories, the ideas, and the words that answer us make sense of our lives and our w orld. The humanities introduce us to people we have never met, places we have never visited, and ideas that whitethorn have never crossed our minds.By showing how others have lived and thought about life, the humanities help us decide what is important in our own lives and what we can do to make them better. By connecting us with other people, they point the way to answers about what is right or wrong, or what is true to our heritage and our history. The humanities help us address the challenges we face together in our families, our communities, and as a nation. I am blessed to have met Mr. Apas.I knew and realized the glaring importance and beauty of what he always part us regarding culture and art in our humanities class. But I pray the effort for each of us to grasp at what he was aiming, might at the very least bring us to a better understanding of arts and culture.
doubt 1 Explain the wellness and wellness.wellness is the ability of an individual to function well physic completelyy, geni everyy, socially, and spiritually to be able to instal the full range of stars unique potentialities within the environment in which one is living(a) (Farlex, 2013). Our wellness potentiometer be affected by the way we deal with our social, physical and psychological issues in life. Shelter, food, education, social security, wellness and social run, income and employment argon one of the factors that leads to the condition of our wellness. wellness is a express of complete physical, rational and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of affection and infirmity (WHO, 1974). Wellness goes beyond the absence of symptoms and works toward achieving maximum potential and prevention of health paradoxs. We tend to echo that a soul who shows no sign of illness is bouncing. Positive thinking encourages gives us answers, control and the way disc ev erywhere of illness and problems whereas if we think negative it strips us of power and control. To achieve a honorable health we must(prenominal)(prenominal) involve ourselves to exercise, proper nutritional food, good sleep and healthy lifestyle. irresolution 2 Health Models endure gene arrange nurses with a framework to admirer guide the focus of their nursing cargon. Describe devil of these models and how they jakes exercise a persons health. unrivaled of the health models is the Holistic Health Model. Holistic health is defined as a wellness approach that addresses the form, mind and spirit or the physical, emotional/mental and spiritual aspects of an individual (Perkins, 2007). By spiritual means the essence of who you are. Holistic health is how our physical state, mental state and experience in life responds to the status of our health. Nurses evokenister help and encourage patients to engage in the healing process and practice session a variety of self- pull of f strategies to better their health and wellness.An new(prenominal) one of the health models is The Illness-wellness continuum, which is a guide to help understand the phase of illness and wellness of an individual in legal impairment of their health. Illness is characterised byresponsibility and purposeful actions to maintain high levels of health (Central Institute of Technology, (n.d.), p. 64). This model allow for help guide the nurses in identifying the clients level of illness and what methods of help and armorial bearing they grade up give to the client to improve their health and wellness.Question 3 There are a come forwardcome of factors, which have an influence on our health. enchant identify four factors and explain how they can influence a persons health. Some factors that influence our health are as follows exercisement/Income Gives people the luck to earn money and enjoy it by spending for their needs and what they want. Our income leave help us tender for our families proper nutrition, and safe shelter. Having a job will help pay our bills, medication, health insurance and other necessities. Physical Environment Having to have clean air, water and surroundings will have a lesser impact to our health. Exposure to heavy metals, chemicals, and other environmental toxins and pathogens can affect our health as these can be harmful to our body. Having a healthy and safe working environment helps to reduce any injury or harm. Aside from these, having a safe house, communities and surroundings will help us achieve good health Nutrition Proper nutrition, healthy food to eat has a big impact on our health.If we eat unhealthy, fatty foods it will not only make us over weight nevertheless can be a cause of serious illness in our body. By eating galvanic pile of fresh, green vegetables and having a balanced diet gives our body the nutrients we need to have a healthy life. life-style Lifestyle defines how we decease. Being involved in spor ts, exercise regularly, eating healthy, having the right weight are all disunite of healthy lifestyle merely if we involve ourselves to bad habits like smoking, alcohol and drugs then we wouldnt achieve that good health that our body need. Question 4 People from other countries will incline heath and illness issues than those we face in Australia. Choose a country other than Australia and identify two unique or diverse health/illness issues they face. Philippines faces a lot of health issues and one of them is terabit. tebibyte is a potentially contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs (Tuberculosis, 2014)It is a communicable disease which can be transferred from one person to another via air when they sneeze, coughing or spit. Symptoms intromit coughing for more than than two weeks, weight loss, cough with blood, chest pain and fever. About 10-15 people anually are infected with this disease by a tuberculosis pati ent. Normally, this disease infect adults but it can excessively be haved by children. It is curable and preventable as well.There was an estimated 260,000 people infected with tuberculosis in 2011 according to the WHO in the Philippines and 28,000 of them die per stratum. The prevalence rate is high with elders, urban porr, smokers, people with HIV, and those who suffer from malnutrition.Another health issues that the Philippines faces is Malaria. According to the World Health Organization, over 12 million people in that country are at risk of death caused by malaria. Most of the cases occur in mountainous and forested areas that are infested with Plasmodium and other species. The virus can be transferred by the species by puncturing the human skin where the virus flow on the blood stream, paste in the whole body. In an hour, malaria can kill a person if they are not witting that they have been bitten. The World Health Organization together with Department of Health came up wi th different programs which talked rough preachings and sureness about malaria.Question 5a) What are roughly of the different health issues facing primal and Torres Strait Islander people here in Australia? Please describe at least 3 and include in your answer some of their health beliefs and practices that may have an influence on their health.One of the most common health issues faced by Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders is ear disease/hearing loss, one in eight persons have a case of ear disease or hearing problems. heart and soul and circulatory disease is also one of them. The autochthonic people hadthe higher rate of heart and circulatory disease compared to non-indigenous people who live in Australia.The last most common health issues faced by Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander is Asthma. One in every six persons have asthma according to the fall out done by Australian Bureau of Statistics. There was as much cases of indigenous people who live in non-remote a rea who has asthma.The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people greatly believe in traditionalistic medicine and this highly influences their health. One key elder and medicine woman, Anna Warren, said that the core of the traditional aboriginal medicine is the spirit. She said that if the body is well, then the spirit will be well too. She added that it requires thickheaded listening to be able to connect with the spirit.For these indigenous people, they feel that western medicine is alienating and makes them ill at ease(predicate) to the predict where they would avoid seeking treatment. Aside from this, many indigenous people do not aver the health criminal maintenance system due to their negative previous experiences (i.e. racism and mistreatment) while they were given services.b) How should this influence how health sustenance is delivered to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Based on the website made by Creative Spirits, in order to make great improvements pos sible and to make the indigenous people feel more promiscuous and for the health care system to regain the indigenous peoples trust, the following should be consideredEmploy indigenous rung more indigenous patients will be at ease seeking help or treatment when they know that more indigenous staff work in the health sector. manufacture an aboriginal-friendly feel hospitals, clinics and other health care related pplaces should incorporate indigenous art works because this help them feel relaxed and connected with the place. The indigenous people will have the sense of belongingness and pride when they see their graphicsdisplayed.Verify informed consent this is a process which should be stricty followed if an indigenous patient will support any medical procedure which involves the right person within the network of kinship and union of interests relationships. garter Aboriginal patients understand their disease providing visuals, using clear and simple run-in, much better if native language is used will help the indigenous people understand what causes their condition.Have culturally aware staff Aboriginal culture procreation should be taught to the staff in order to give them better perceptiveness and for them to offer respect to the indigenous people.Offer low price treatments medical treatments should be made affordable for the indigenous people as most of them have little or no income at all.Question 6 Nursing as a profession has had many changes over the time. Compare nursing as a profession in 2014 to 1960 in the areas of education and professional appearance. During 1960 when it comes to professional appearance nurses use to fag out white dresses, stockings and starched caps. It was during this decade that uniform also take a turn in the direction of more fashionable than in the past. Todays nursing uniform was determinationed more for functions than form but are considered much more comfortable than those worn throughout the history. In 1 985 1997 a two year training to become a general nurse was introduced and over the time hospital based training was also introduced and continued until 1980s. The tertiary sector then took over all the RN education and degree level in 1990s. The Enrolled Nursing education in WA was located in TAFE colleges, Mt Lawley in 1989. The emergence of post graduate nursing studies in Australia is still ongoing.As a profession straightaway Nurses role has taking on more technologically challenging roles than at any other point of history. Some nurses are taking over roles that were once reserve for physician. Nurses are becoming more specialise than in days past, there are specialties like OR (operating Room), Medical Surgical Nurse, Pediatric Nurses, sedulousness and Delivery nurseand even Psychiatric nurse. Continuing education and clinical experience go along way today to ensure that nurses are on top of their games.Question 7 There are occupational health and safety issues that nurse s should take into consideration when carrying out their nursing practice. Please explain what is meant by a) Infection Control it means following procedures, standard and additional precautions to prevent the risk of infections from spreading. Nurses play a vital role in controlling the risk of potential spread of infection in their employment and must always remember that patients and the health care providers alike are vulnerable to easily acquire any disease. Nurses must always think and apply the following practises-hand hygiene-using personal protective equipment-safe discussion and disposal of sharps-decontaminating equipment-achieving and maintaining clean clinical environmentb) Manual Handling is a procedure that involves physical endeavor of our body by way of lifting, pulling, pushing, carrying, holding or restraining of a person or individual. It involves repetitive actions and sometimes use of equipment can be involved. Nurses should follow the standards of manual handling to prevent injury, illness, pain and suffering of individuals in the workplace and to have a safe workplace.Question 8 What are some of the professional civilisement strategies you can use to maintain your skills and knowledge when you are qualified nurse? Performance revaluation approximation which can be done by your managers review of your performance or you review the performance of your peers. Self-assessment this will help you escort out how you can further improve or develop your skills, attitudes and capabilities. Continuing education by learning new skills, learning how to use new equipment or hardly updating your knowledge and skills will help in gaining more knowledge and skills.Question 9 Please explain the role of the Nursing and Midwifery Board Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency and industrial Organisations in nursing profession.Nursing and Midwifery Board Australia has a broad function and one of them is registering befittingly qualifi ed and competent person as nurses, midwives and students. They are the ones that develop and approve the standards codes and guidelines for nursing and midwifery professions. They also are the ones that assess the knowledge and skills of overseas applicants for adjustment and determining suitability for registration in Australia. Nurses and midwives must be registered in Nurses and Midwifery Board of Australia and meet the boards registration standards to be able to practice in Australia.AHPRAS role is to protect the publics safety. They publishes national registers of practitioner so important training about the registration of individual health practitioner is available. They are the ones that manage the registration and renewal processes for health practitioners and students around Australia. They also provide advice to the Ministerial Council about the administration of the National Registration and accreditation scheme. The development of registration standards, guidelines an d codes are maintained and supported by them.The ANF (Australian Nursing Federation) is one of the largest industrial organisations and the national union for nurses in Australia. They help with the progress and development of policy relating to Nursing and midwifery practice, professionalism, regulation, education, training, workforce, and socio- economic welfare, health and time-worn care, club services, veterans affairs, occupational health and safety, industrial relations, social justice, human rights, immigration, foreign affairs and police force reform (ANF, 2011, p. 2). The Autralian Nursing Federations function is the industrial and professional representation of nurses through activities of a national office and branches in every state and territories.Question 10 How does the Scope of Practice end Making Framework influence your nursing practice. This will help us to determine and understand if we are capable enough to perform a given projection. If the nurse have been given a task and is not confident or unsure of how to achieve it, the chart will help guide you as to what step you should take instead. Wemust understand carefully each steps to provide the best eliminate care for our patient and to help us achieve a safe proficient nursing care.Question 11 There are three levels of care provided in different health care environments in the Australian health care system. Please explain what those three levels are and where we can expect to find each level of care. primary quill Health Care is the first point of health care and is part of Australian health system used most. Given to people living in their own community outside of hospitals. Its major task is the early detection and prevention of disease and the maintenance of health. Secondary Health Care looks at the general services provided by a hospital.A hospital stay for a brief but serious illness and mostly concerned with the planning of specific technical, therapeutic or diagnostic he alth care services. They usually focus on a specific health problem and can provide services by medical specialists e.g. cardiologist. Tertiary Health Care Highly work and technical care provided in hospital to diagnose and treat disease. Individuals who has complex health problems, and require treatment from doctors and nurses with advance level skills. Entry into the health care system at this level is gained by referral from every the primary or secondary level.Question 12a) What is the philosophical system for Primary Health Care?Primary Health Cares main goal is to give provide better health for people.The philosophy behind primary health care is based upon (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8)A holistic understanding of health as wellbeing rather than absence of disease (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8) Recognition of the multiple determinants of health including gender, housing, education, transport, planning, communication, social and other services (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8). Community input into health services which will be reflected by involvement of communities and individuals at all levels of planning and provision of services (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8). Equity in health care and prioritisationof services to the most poor (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8). Accessible, acceptable and affordable services and technology (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8). Eliminating causes of ill health through health promotion and disease prevention (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8). Recognition that primary health care must be based upon social, biomedical and health services research in order to provide effective health care (Gallagher, 2014, p. 8).b) Explain the residue between health promotion and illness prevention Health promotion means encouraging and keep the person or yourself to improve your health and wellbeing. Illness prevention is the way to promote good health and reduce the risk of illness to individuals and their family members through knowledge, education and healthy lifestyle.c) Describe some of the factors you would consider if you were to design a health promotion campaign. In designing a promotion campaign I would think of the design of the campaign, presentation of it, which audience to present it to, contents of the message and how to advertise it. I would also include these following in promoting my health campaign promote the involvement of every individuals in physical activities and sports provide education towards healthy lifestyle and harmful effects of drug and alcohol to encourage everyone of eating healthy nutritious food promote the importance of having 8 hours of sleepHealth care promotion can help improve a healthy living and helps a person to build up strengths that will keep up and develop his or her good health and boost their quality of life.d) What is your role as a nurse in the area of health promotion? Nurses are expected to be aware and acknowledge the health issues and factors that affects health condition. Nurses contributes to the promotion of th eir clients health and social wellbeing by Promoting health and self-care, act in providing health promotion interventions, being aware of the key health and social factors to be considered when carrying out an assessment of individual needs, being aware of the contributions of other professionals to assessment and intervention.Question 13 How has the focus of the provision of health care changed over the last 20 years. There had been a lot of changes for the past 20 years in the health care here in Australia. Since 1984, there had been major changes in medicare which provides retrieve to affordable high quality care and it is available to all Australian citizens and permanent residents. Medicare is also seen as providing universal entryway to a set rebate, being well suited ti episodic careof ill-health and change patient choice of health provider (Department of Health and Ageing, 2009).-In 1999-2000 The EPC (Enhance Primary Care) MBS was introduced to provide quality health ca re for elderly Australians, patients with chronic conditions and with multi-disciplinary care needs. -In 2004 MBS items were introduced for a limited range of services provided by practice nurses when acting for, and on behalf of, a GP (Australian Government, 2009). -In 2004 bulk billing incentive items were introduced to concession card holders and children aged under 16 -Chronic disease management was introduced in 2005.Changes in general practise funding for indigenous people were also introduced. Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provides an important role to the delivery of primary health care to the Indigenous people. In addition, the 2009-10 Budget announced that, from January 2010, a new Rural Primary Health Services Program (RPHS) would be established to consolidate a range of existing programs and introduce great flexibility into primary health care service provision in rural and remote communities (Australian Government, 2009). through the yea rs the government have developed the National Age care programs which includes residential health care and community care services for elderly that funded by the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments. Community age care support is available through Home and community care which address low care needs, community aged care packages available for mid-level care needs, and extended aged care at home and hallucination specific supported with high care needs. In 2002 the Department of Health and Aging was established. The Government put up programs to help multicultural Australians to provide help when introductioning the health care and they did it in the form of pamphlets with different languages, telephone interpreter service and culture specific health services. Australian governmentimplemented some innovative solutions to health issues arising out of Australias unique history needs (Central Institute of Technology, 2014, p. 23). Australians have access to heavily subsidised medicines, pharmaceuticals and technologies prescribed by medical officers (Koutoukidis, Stainton & Hughson, 2010, p.67).Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) provides timely, reliable and affordable access to necessary medicines for Australians. The PBS is part of the Australian Governments broader National Medicines Policy. The rates of hospital use have increased because of the impact of the new technology and hospital organisation in reducing length of stay. Our government has increased their funding to expand the provision of sub-acute services. Our present and our future primary health care system is more accessible, clinically and culturally appropriate now. Its more focus on interference care including support of healthy lifestyle more safe, high quality care which is continually up through relevant researched innovation and rise of health care promotion.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Introduction to irreverent Blood by Flannery OConnor by Karen L. Enz Though a short sweet, Wise Blood is a dense and complicated one bodily fluidh versatile levels of meaning. Many readers are confused and shocked by the novel as there is a distinguishable lack of likeable characters and there is much violence. A key element in understanding the novels construction and meaning is to understand the literary influences on Flannery OConnor. Flannery OConnor was deeply influenced by Roman Catholicism that informed her own religious aesthesia which echoed in her literary voice.Her religious views depicted a deeply flawed world that could only be redeemed by the intercession of grace. Her southerly origins brought that vision into high relief with her use of casts of grotesque characters who were often involved in violent incidents. She subjected her characters to microscopical evaluation of their religious and existential obsessions. To lighten its dark tone, Flannery OConnor utiliz ed her masterful satiric wit to increase the spectrum of the colors in her literary canvass.A second influence was OConnors intense flick to the predominant literary style, New Criticism, which was at its apex during the middle of the twentieth century. New Criticism was a complicated formulaic style that often utilized dense symbolism, paradox, irony, tension and ambiguous meaning, all hallmarks of OConnors writing. New Criticism also professed that a work was to have a high spirit level of unity and self-containment. If we see Wise Blood through both OConnors religious sensibility and its permeation in New Criticism, the structure and meaning of the novel fall more easily into place.Haze Motes, (note the symbolism of his name hazy vision and mote in the eye) is a the epitome of the religiously obsessed individual. The more he professes unbelief, the more unsure and shortsighted he becomes. The ultimate paradox occurs in his blinding, when he in the end realizes his need for r edemption. The text is rife with symbolism, much of it religious. The sky is permeated with clouds that look like a simplified divinitys beards and curls, roadside pigs that are symbols of the devil, a shrunken man who was a symbol a stupid idol, an old Essex which was symbolic of a search for meaning and homecoming, and glasses that obscure vision.Some critics see the novel as a condemnation of modernity in its cult of shallow self-absorption and nihilistic pursuits. Haze is so concentrate on his pursuit of unbelief that he fails to see anything around him, including the needs of Enoch (who is driven by consciousness wise blood) and Sabbath. A satiric note is sounded in Chapter 7, which can serve as a microcosm of the novel, when Sabbath receives a letter from Mary Brittle (note the symbolic nature of the name) who advises Sabbath Perhaps you ought to re-examine your religious determine to see if they meet your needs in Life.A religious experience can be a good-looking addit ion to living if you put it a proper perspective and do not let it stoop you. Read some books on Ethical Culture. Sabbath, though she is trying to seduce Haze, can be seen as a Christ figure in that mentions I can save you, I got a church building in my heart where Jesus is king. Haze is unconvinced and he drives off leaving behind a blinding white cloud that turns into a bird with long wings that disappears in the opposite direction. Wise Blood is a complicated and multi-faceted novel that is not for the faint of heart. For those who can plumb the novels meaning, it can challenge and inform.